Journal of Clinical Epigenetics Open Access

  • ISSN: 2472-1158
  • Journal h-index: 10
  • Average acceptance to publication time (5-7 days)
  • Average article processing time (30-45 days) Less than 5 volumes 30 days
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Commentary - (2022) Volume 8, Issue 5

Various Macrophage Phenotypes Involved in Epigenetic Allergy
Bernard Ashley*
Department of Clinical Epigenetics, University of Michigan, USA
*Correspondence: Bernard Ashley, Department of Clinical Epigenetics, University of Michigan, USA, Email:

Received: 04-May-2022, Manuscript No. IPJCE-22-13478; Editor assigned: 06-May-2022, Pre QC No. IPJCE-22-13478 (PQ); Reviewed: 20-May-2022, QC No. IPJCE-22-13478; Revised: 24-May-2022, Manuscript No. IPJCE-22-13478 (R); Published: 01-Jun-2022, DOI: 10.21767/2472-1158-22.8.22


Over the last few decades, the incidence and prevalence of allergic diseases have increased significantly, which appears to be associated with rapid environmental and lifestyle changes, including: B. High exposure to factors that may have allergenic effects, but low exposure to known factors is associated with protection against the development of allergies. Contamination is the most prominent example of the former, while reduced exposure to microorganisms, a reduced proportion of raw natural products in the diet, and other consequences of urbanization and westernized lifestyles are examples of the latter. It is strongly believed that the effects of environmental factors on allergic susceptibility and development are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. H. Biologically related biochemical changes in M chromatin that carry transcription-related information but do not affect genomic nucleotide sequences.

DNA methylation (DNAm) has been shown to play a role in mediating food allergies. This study uses next-generation targeted bisulfite sequencing to assess DNAm levels in 125 targeted and highly informative genomic regions, including 602 CpG sites on 70 immune-related genes. I understand if you can distinguish between peanut allergies and non-allergies. With PA-related DNAm signatures associated with 12 genes (7 that may be associated with food allergies, 3 associated with Th1/Th2, 2 associated with innate immunity), and peanut-specific IgE. A combination of DNAm signatures with superior diagnostic ability was found in comparison. PA compared to serum N/A. Furthermore, after peanut protein stimulation, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from PA participants showed increased production of related cytokines compared to NA participants.

Despite treatments that lower blood sugar levels, the cardiovascular risk of diabetes remains high. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia induces trained immunity of macrophages that promote sustained atherosclerotic properties.

Food allergies (FA) are a growing problem worldwide, and their prevalence has increased in developed countries in recent years. Today, the immunological and cellular processes involved in allergic reactions are not fully understood, which impedes the development of in vitro diagnostics and other treatment options. In addition, allergic diseases can be exacerbated by environmental influences and genetic changes. Gene expression can be controlled by a variety of epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs. In addition, several environmental factors such as dietary components (vitamin D, butyric acid, folic acid) can regulate this epigenetic mechanism. All of these factors lead to the development and function of immune cells, and thus to the modification of immune genes that can alter the etiology of the disease.

Enhanced glycolysis by metabolic reprogramming in pulmonary myofibroblasts is important for their pro-fibrotic phenotype. Lactic acid, a major by-product of glycolysis, is also secreted into the extracellular environment, along with myofibroblasts and macrophages forming spatially restricted sites commonly referred to as fibrotic niches. Therefore, it was hypothesized that myofibroblast glycolysis may have a non-cellular autonomous effect by lactate that regulates the pathogenic phenotype of alveolar macrophages.


The development and functional potential of metazoan cells depends on the role of the combination of transcription enhancers and promoters. Macrophages provide a very powerful model system for studying the underlying mechanisms of activation of cell-specific enhancers that drive cell fate and state transitions. Here we review recent advances in expanding awareness of macrophage phenotypic diversity in health and illness, and highlight studies on liver, adipose tissue, and brain macrophages as a cell type paradigm with other tissue macrophages. Studies of macrophages inhabiting normal tissues and macrophages associated with liver cirrhosis, obese adipose tissue, and neurodegenerative diseases are key to the tissue environment in remodeling the enhancer landscape to identify the evolution and function of various macrophage phenotypes.



Conflict of Interest

The author declares there is no conflict of interest in publishing this article.

Citation: Ashley B (2022) Various Macrophage Phenotypes Involved in Epigenetic Allergy J Clin Epigen.8:22.

Copyright: © Ashley B. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited