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Mini Review - (2023) Volume 9, Issue 4

Understanding Vaginal Infections: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Options
Joanna Borgogna*
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Baltimore, Baltimore, USA
*Correspondence: Joanna Borgogna, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Baltimore, Baltimore, USA, Email:

Received: 28-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. IPGOCR-23-17568; Editor assigned: 30-Jun-2023, Pre QC No. IPGOCR-23-17568 (PQ); Reviewed: 11-Jul-2023, QC No. IPGOCR-23-17568 (Q); Revised: 18-Jul-2023, Manuscript No. IPGOCR-23-17568 (R); Published: 27-Jul-2023, DOI: 10.36648/2471-8165.9.4.26


Vaginal infections are a common health concern among women, causing discomfort, irritation and an overall negative impact on their quality of life. These infections occur when there is an imbalance in the vaginal ecosystem, allowing harmful bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms to proliferate. In this article, we will explore the causes, symptoms and treatment options available for vaginal infections, aiming to provide comprehensive information and promote better understanding and awareness. BV is the most common vaginal infection, characterized by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria. It often occurs when the natural balance between "good" and "bad" bacteria in the vagina is disrupted. Factors such as poor hygiene, douching, multiple sexual partners and the use of certain antibiotics can contribute to BV.


Vaginal microbiota; Vaginal ecosystem; Probiotic


Human vaginal microbiota includes a different cluster of gainful microorganisms and entrepreneurial microbes that occupy the vaginal milieu. Multiple approaches utilizing "-omics" technologies have been developed to comprehend the microbiota in the human vagina. Sub-atomic methodologies that are normally utilized to concentrate on the microbial networks are Polymerase Chain Response Denaturing Inclination Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), DNA pyrosequencing, Fluorescence In situ Hybridisation (FISH), quantitative PCR and microarrays. In addition, research into the discovery of functional activity in microbial communities has begun to be reenergized by additional contemporary "-omics" technologies like metabolomics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and proteomics. Through the association of microbial and metabolic profiles with their role in mediating human health, the integration of contemporary multi'omic data is able to decipher the functional insights that are derived from complex microbial communities [1].

Literature Review

Due to its ability to infer the representation of specific microbial communities that cause diseases, 16S rRNA gene sequencing has been used in the vast majority of human microbiota studies to identify complex microbial communities. Using cutting-edge high-throughput sequencing technology, five distinct bacterial communities have been successfully identified since technological advancements in assessing human microbial diversity. The native microbiota in the vaginal milieu is accepted to be in a cooperative relationship with the host. In the mucous layer of the vagina, fungi, particularly Candida species, are likely to exist as commensals. Together with other bacteria, they make up the intricate ecosystem of the vagina. It is recommended that the vacillation of microbiota and mycobiota piece in ladies of conceptive age added to the fleeting elements in vaginal networks. In fact, hormonal changes, age, sexual practices and the use of antibiotics all contribute to this fluctuation. Overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens is caused by the vaginal microbial dysbiosis, which ultimately contributes to the onset of disease [2].


Candida albicans, a type of fungus that naturally exists in the vagina, can multiply and cause an overgrowth, resulting in a yeast infection. Factors such as hormonal changes, uncontrolled diabetes, weakened immune system, pregnancy and the use of antibiotics or contraceptive pills can increase the risk of yeast infections. This Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) is caused by a parasitic microorganism called Trichomonas vaginalis. Unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected partner is the primary mode of transmission. Symptoms may range from mild irritation to severe inflammation. The normal microbiota and mycobiota, two types of microorganisms, inhabit the human vagina. Lactobacillus, which includes Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus iners and Lactobacillus jensenii, is the microorganism that is most frequently isolated from a healthy human vagina. It has been claimed that by controlling their population, these vaginal lactobacilli prevent pathogens from entering the body. However, the overgrowth of pathogens that leads to complicated vaginal infections like Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC), Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is exacerbated when the vaginal ecosystem is disrupted. The microbial community can be altered by predisposing factors like menstruation, pregnancy, sexual activity, uncontrolled antibiotic use and vaginal douching. As a result, the composition of the microbiota in the vagina plays a significant role in determining the health of the vagina [3,4].

Attributable to their By and large perceived as protected status, lactobacilli have been generally used as one of the choices other than ordinary antimicrobial therapy against vaginal microbes for the anticipation of constant vaginitis and the rebuilding of vaginal biological system. In addition, the long-term administration of Lactobacillus has demonstrated its prophylactic efficacy. The purpose of this review was to highlight the beneficial effects of lactobacilli derivatives, also known as surface-active molecules that have anti-biofilm, antioxidant, pathogen-inhibition, immunomodulation and pathogen-inhibition properties. We also talk about the current obstacles that need to be overcome before using lactobacilli derivatives to improve human health. In this review, we hope to shed light on the potential of lactobacilli derivatives as a complementary or alternative treatment for vaginal health to conventional probiotic therapy. The symptoms of vaginal infections can vary depending on the specific type of infection. Changes in color, consistency and odor of vaginal discharge are commonly observed in vaginal infections. Discharge may become grayish, greenish, or white and curd-like in the case of BV or yeast infections. Itchy and irritated vaginal tissues are often reported in different types of infections. It may cause discomfort and a constant urge to scratch the affected area [5].

Vaginal infections can cause a burning sensation or pain during urination. This symptom is particularly common in yeast infections and trichomoniasis. Some infections can lead to vaginal soreness, redness and swelling, making sexual intercourse and daily activities uncomfortable. Certain vaginal infections can cause an unpleasant odor, especially in cases of BV or infections caused by sexually transmitted pathogens. The treatment of vaginal infections depends on the specific type of infection diagnosed by a healthcare professional. Over-thecounter or prescription antifungal creams, suppositories, or oral medications are commonly used to treat yeast infections. These medications help eliminate the fungal overgrowth and restore the vaginal balance. Metronidazole or clindamycin are typically prescribed to treat bacterial vaginosis. These antibiotics help reduce the harmful bacteria and restore the normal balance in the vagina. Trichomoniasis is treated with specific antiprotozoal medications like metronidazole or tinidazole. It's important that both sexual partners receive treatment simultaneously to prevent reinfection. Maintaining good hygiene practices, such as avoiding douching, wearing breathable underwear and practicing safe sex, can help prevent and manage vaginal infections. To reduce the risk of vaginal infections, the following self-care measures are recommended [6].


In conclusion, vaginal infections can be distressing, but with proper understanding and timely intervention, they can be effectively treated and managed. Recognizing the causes, symptoms and available treatment options empowers women to seek appropriate medical attention and adopt preventive measures for a healthier vaginal ecosystem. If you suspect a vaginal infection or experience persistent symptoms, it is always advisable to consult a healthcare professional for accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment.



Conflict of Interest

The author has no conflicts of interest to declare.


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Citation: Borgogna J (2023) Understanding Vaginal Infections: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Options. Gynecol Obstet Case Rep. Vol.9 No.4:26.

Copyright: © Borgogna J. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.