American Journal of Advanced Drug Delivery Open Access

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Commentary - (2023) Volume 11, Issue 2

The role of stress in drug addiction. An integrative review
Pablo Ruisoto*
Department of Psychobiology, University of Salamanca, Spain
*Correspondence: Pablo Ruisoto, Department of Psychobiology, University of Salamanca, Spain, Email:

Received: 31-May-2023, Manuscript No. IPAAD-23-17183; Editor assigned: 02-Jun-2023, Pre QC No. IPAAD-23-17183; Reviewed: 16-Jun-2023, QC No. IPAAD-23-17183; Revised: 21-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. IPAAD-23-17183; Published: 28-Jun-2023, DOI: 110.36648/2321-547X.23.11.19


Drug addiction, also known as substance use disorder, is a complex and chronic medical condition characterized by the compulsive use of drugs despite harmful consequences. It is considered a brain disorder because drugs can alter the brain’s structure and function, leading to changes in behavior, judgment, and decision-making. Compulsive drug use individuals with addiction have difficulty controlling their drug use, leading to a strong urge to consume drugs even when they want to quit. Craving a powerful desire or urge to use drugs, which can be triggered by environmental cues or internal factors. Tolerance over time, individuals may need higher doses of the drug to achieve the desired effect, as their bodies become accustomed to the substance. Withdrawal when drug use is reduced or stopped, individuals may experience physical and psychological symptoms, known as withdrawal symptoms. Negative consequences drug addiction can lead to various negative consequences in an individual’s life, including issues with relationships, work, health, and legal problems. Drugs that are commonly associated with addiction include opioids (e.g., heroin, prescription painkillers), stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines), depressants (e.g., benzodiazepines, barbiturates), and hallucinogens (e.g., LSD, psilocybin). Treatment for drug addiction often involves a combination of behavioral therapies, counseling, and, in some cases, medications. The specific treatment plan may vary based on the type of drug used and the individual’s unique circumstances. It is important to remember that addiction is a treatable condition, and seeking professional help is crucial for recovery. If you or someone you know is struggling with drug addiction, it is essential to reach out to healthcare professionals, addiction specialists, or support groups for assistance and guidance. Transdermal conveyance has demonstrated to be one of the most good techniques among novel medication conveyance frameworks. Since drugs directed by transdermal conveyance frameworks keep away from the gastrointestinal parcel, and hence keep away from transformation by the liver, the probability of liver brokenness and gastrointestinal plot aggravation as secondary effects is low. Drug conveyance through the skin enjoys different benefits, for example, keeping a viable pace of medication conveyance over the long haul, a consistent pace of course, and the advantages of a latent conveyance framework and dispersion. Transdermal medication conveyance is accomplished utilizing patches which comprise of various and explicit layers. Over the most recent couple of many years, many sorts of patches have been endorsed around the world, for example, clinical mortars, which have been by and large applied to the skin for limited infections. Such fixes can be followed back to antiquated and are the early forerunners of the present transdermal patches. With the assistance of successful plan, materials, assembling, and assessment, an enormous number of medications can now be managed utilizing this important cutting edge innovation. This study audits various sorts of polymer fixes, their benefits and drawbacks, and various examinations connected with transdermal medication conveyance strategies, and the benefits and inconveniences of every technique. Various instruments of transdermal medication conveyance framework with patches are likewise examined. Empty organized nanomaterials (HSNMs) have drawn in expanded interest in biomedical fields, attributable to their amazing potential as medication conveyance frameworks (DDSs) for clinical applications. Among HSNMs, empty multi-shelled structures (HoMSs) show properties, for example, high stacking limit, consecutive medication discharge, and multi-functionalized change and address another class of nanoplatforms for clinical applications.



Conflict Of Interest

Author declares that there is no conflict of interest.

Citation: Ruisoto P (2023) The Role of Stress in Drug Addiction. An integrative review. Am J Adv Drug Deliv. 11:19.

Copyright: © 2023 Ruisoto P. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.