Short Communication - (2022) Volume 10, Issue 5
Received: 30-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. IPAAD-22-14876; Editor assigned: 01-Sep-2022, Pre QC No. IPAAD-22-14876 (PQ); Reviewed: 15-Sep-2022, QC No. IPAAD-22-14876; Revised: 20-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. IPAAD-22-14876 (R); Published: 27-Sep-2022, DOI: 10.36648/2321-547X.22.10.21
Over the past few decades, one of the leading causes of death worldwide has been cancer. Selective targeting of tumour cells is essential for the treatment of cancer and, by reducing the side effects of standard chemotherapies, makes it a superior alternative. Medicine development experts should concentrate on a variety of aspects when building a drug to be given selectively in the target organ, including the type of cancer they are treating, targeting moieties, and pharmaceutical carriers. Increasing treatment efficacy while reducing off-target toxicity or achieving selectivity is the goal of every targeting approach, regardless of the technique. A promising, non-invasive technique for selectively collecting magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in different organs or site-specific lesions is magnetic targeting. Additionally often employed for medical and diagnostic applications are magnetic micro- and nanoparticles. These therapeutic outcomes could be enhanced with a greater comprehension of the physiological mechanisms involved in the magnetic targeting of an MNP to diverse vascular diseases. MNPs are administered after the target location has been exposed to an external magnetic field as part of the conventional protocol for magnetic targeting. Nanoparticles must first be passively transported to the lesion after injection by the blood flow. The interplay between the magnetic and hydrodynamic drag forces and the vascular wall environment determines an MNP’s retention once it has been introduced into the vasculature lesion .
Peptides are easily accessible by chemical and biological means. Peptides are brief lengths of amino acids or tiny proteins that occupy a key position between proteins and amino acids. They have carved out a significant space in the drug development spectrum, completing small molecules and biological treatments with optimal qualities for building high-affinity and precise contacts with host target proteins. Peptide-based therapies are among the most effective biomedicines in use today and have enormous promise.
While the introduction of targeted therapy, such as antibodies and inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor, has improved the progression-free survival for patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), the five year survival rates have only slightly increased over the past ten years. Since there are just a few oncogenic mutations that cause CRC, which has undergone extensive genetic analysis, there is enough variety brought on by varied combinations and sites of these mutations to qualify CRC as a genetically heterogeneous illness. When a single mutation is targeted, CRC cells may proliferate more slowly and, in some situations, may even be killed. However, in the majority of cases, CRC cells will resist targeted treatments like cetuximab .
Multiple mutations that cause aggressive cell division, compete with healthy cells for nutrition, and eventually create a bulk mass are what cause cancer. Angiogenesis eventually happens when tumours develop their own vasculature, which creates a hostile microenvironment characterised by elevated interstitial pressure (IFP), a lack of oxygen and nutrients, extreme acidity, and other factors. The tumour can avoid the immune system because of the unique properties of the tumour microenvironment, which can activate immunological checkpoint molecules and create a range of immunosuppressive cytokines. To change their environment and flourish, tumour cells emit growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix. This ultimately prevents the immune system from responding. However, the complex tumour microenvironment provides the advantage of directing medications toward the cancer site. By blocking DNA synthesis during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle, a traditional medication delivery strategy in oncology kills rapidly dividing and expanding cancer cells. The quality of life is decreased by the toxic side effects and side effects of radiation and chemotherapy. They also run the risk of developing cancer cells resistant to these treatments. Non-targeted chemotherapeutic agents damage healthy, more specifically rapidly developing healthy tissues like bone marrow cells involved in blood production, hair follicles, and cells inside the mouth cavity, cells that are present in the body’s immune system, and other healthy tissues in the gastrointestinal tract and reproductive system. Cognitive impairments, immunosuppression, bone marrow suppression, gastrointestinal discomfort, fatigue, hair loss, organ damage, infertility, anemia, secondary tumors, urine and bladder changes and kidney problems, sores and pain with swallowing due to problems associated with mouth, tongue and throat, unexplained bruising and bleeding, sensitivity to infection, dry and pale skins, and blood stools are the common toxicities associated with conventional chemotherapeutic agents as these pose non-selective action to normal cells and are given to cancer survivors at a Maximally Tolerated Dose (MTD) to approach maximum tumor cell death resulting in suboptimal treatment due to excessive toxicities. Cancer patients’ progression-free survival can only be increased by conventional chemotherapeutics’ inability to develop Multidrug Resistance (MDR) and non-targeted toxicity, which also significantly lowers their quality of life and may even cause death. A British investigation by The National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD), which looked into more than six hundred cases of mortality within thirty days of chemotherapy, found that 25% of patients’ deaths were caused by the adverse effects of chemotherapy rather than the cancer in 43% of patients who experienced significant treatment-related toxicity. The study showed that 27% of deaths in critically sick patients taking chemotherapy had a cause or an aggravation .
Common side effects of conventional chemotherapeutic treatments include cognitive impairments, immunosuppression, bone marrow suppression, gastrointestinal discomfort, fatigue, hair loss, organ damage, infertility, anaemia, secondary tumours, urine and bladder changes, kidney problems, sores and pain with swallowing caused by problems with the mouth, tongue, and throat, unexplained bruising and bleeding, sensitivity to infection, dry and pale skin, and blood stools .
Every year, more people die from different cancers, which represent a rising mortality rate. A cancer patient’s life may become more difficult as a result of conventional treatment methods, and they may even result in death. Therefore, site-specific targeting of molecules is presently being considered as a cancer therapy strategy by researchers. Enhanced permeability and retention, targeting based on stimuli, chemicals, and receptors are a few of the popular and successful targeting strategies that are being used by researchers throughout the world.
Authors do not have acknowledgments currently.
There are no conflicts of interest.
Citation: Langer M (2022) Operations of Drug Targeting in the Field of Cancer Treatment. Am J Adv Drug Deliv. 10:21.
Copyright: © 2022 Langer M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.