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Review Article - (2024) Volume 32, Issue 2

Improving Performance by Achieving Occupational Safety, Health-Daily Life and Work
Rasha Waheeb*
 
Department of Science and Technology, University of Baghdad, Norway
 
*Correspondence: Rasha Waheeb, Department of Science and Technology, University of Baghdad, Norway, Email:

Received: 24-Apr-2024, Manuscript No. ipqpc-24-19662; Editor assigned: 26-Apr-2024, Pre QC No. ipqpc-24-19662 (PQ); Reviewed: 10-May-2024, QC No. ipqpc-24-19662; Revised: 15-May-2024, Manuscript No. ipqpc-24-19662 (R); Published: 22-May-2024, DOI: 10.36648/1479-1064.32.2.08

Abstract

Our study is concerned with providing measures of security, personal safety, and companionship, as the availability of security and safety is considered one of the most important and basic requirements in order to ensure that work in practical life and various humanitarian activities are carried out successfully. This is because a person is more reassured if he takes good care of the requirements of security, safety, and protection while engaging in any activity, whatever it may be. Security and safety measures and procedures differ according to the places in which the person is present, as well as their difference according to the work and tasks that he performs. In household measures, utmost care is given to children in particular, and they are constantly monitored, as they may expose themselves and those around them to various types of dangers, so attention must be paid to the various sources of fire. And to gas cylinders, etc. All of this may, God forbid, lead to major and dangerous problems that greatly threaten home security and safety. Take all necessary precautions regarding fences, wires, and electrical appliances, as such matters may also lead to major and dangerous disasters. Therefore, various chemical materials must be placed out of the reach of everyone, especially children. Attention should also be paid to the need for these containers containing chemicals to be known to everyone, and distinguished from other containers containing drinks and various foodstuffs, to prevent any confusion. As for measures on the street, they are also considered necessary, such as strict adherence to all signs and various traffic instructions. This ensures that the danger on the roads is reduced to a minimum, and driving ethics must be demonstrated. Driving is an art, taste, and morals, and hence the driver must not treat others in the same way they treat him, and also pay attention to pedestrians to the greatest extent possible. Accidents that may cause damage to vehicles are much less serious than those that may cause harm to humans, and adhere to the legal speeds, and not exceed them. This is because excessive speed is considered the basis of problems, various
traffic accidents, and not being distracted by anything while driving. Such as talking on the phone, or with others, or playing with children, or any other type of distraction. As for measures at work, they include maintaining the cleanliness of the facility within the required standards, which ensures the safety of its workers. Place security and safety instructions in clear places for all workers. Workers should be informed of all the risks of the profession in which they will work, and such matters should not be left unknown. Some establishments are giving training courses related to public safety, as a step towards training workers on various safety procedures. Continuously monitor workers in order to adhere to public safety conditions, and not leave things without real controls. Paying attention to providing the facility with all means of security and safety such as alarms, public safety means, firefighting systems, and others.

Keywords

Improving; Performance; Achieving occupational; Safety; Health; Daily life; Work

Introduction

Occupational health and safety is the science that focuses most of its attention on human safety and health and the necessity of preserving it by creating a safe work environment free of risks that threaten his life or safety [1]. It is also a series of procedures, rules and systems with a legislative framework that strives to protect and preserve human health from the risks of infection, while also preserving property from damage and loss [2].

Steps to implement occupational health and safety standards: Ensure the use of all personal protective and safety equipment during work and not neglect its importance.

1. Ensure that there is a first aid box in the workplace so that minor injury cases can be dealt with quickly.

2. It is necessary to keep chemical and flammable materials away from places where workers are constantly present. This comes because these materials pose a real danger to factories, facilities, and the workers working in them.

3. Emphasizing and raising awareness of concepts related to occupational safety. This is done by appointing an occupational safety supervisor in the place to work on following up on safety requirements that play an important role in reducing occupational accidents.

4. Training the workforce and increasing their readiness through exercises that give them extensive experience in how to deal with accidents immediately after they occur.

5. Ensuring permanent coordination between factory owners and those in charge of them with the Civil Defense Service, through holding various courses.

6. Disseminate brochures and posters periodically in the region, with the need to keep up with developments in all areas of public safety.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

A set of workplace health and safety regulations issued by an agency of the United States Department of Labor. Its function is to impose restrictions and obligations on the degree of exposure to chemicals [3]. The extent of the employee’s ability to access the necessary information and requirements [4]. In the use of personal protective equipment and the necessary requirements for safety procedures, the methods used to implement this standard are summarized as follows:

Job Hazard Analysis: Personal Protective Equipment

• Division and classification of hazardous areas (Hazardous Classified Locations)

• Determine escape routes (Means of Egress). Communicating information on hazardous chemicals (Chemical Hazard)

• Occupational Hygiene Program

• Risk management ISO 31000 is one of the branches of management concerned with measuring and evaluating risks and working to develop its own strategies.

It includes taking all measures and precautions that limit the negative effects on the activity of a place [5]. The main objective of this standard is to establish a series of standards for occupational health and safety. Occupational health and safety is the science that focuses most of its attention on human safety and health and the necessity of preserving it by creating a safe work environment free of risks that threaten his life or safety [6]. It is also a series of procedures, rules and systems with a legislative framework that strives to protect and preserve human health from the risks of infection [7-10]. While also protecting property from damage and loss. Steps to implement occupational health and safety standards.

• Ensure the use of all personal protective and safety equipment during work and not neglect its importance.

• Make sure to have a first aid box in the workplace so that minor injuries can be dealt with quickly.

• It is necessary to keep chemical and flammable materials away from places where workers are constantly present.

• This comes because these materials pose a real danger to factories, facilities and the workers working in them.

• Emphasizing and raising awareness of concepts related to occupational safety, through appointing an occupational safety supervisor in the place to follow up on safety requirements that play an important role in reducing occupational accidents.

• Training the workforce and increasing their readiness through exercises that give them extensive experience in how to deal with accidents immediately after they occur.

• Ensuring constant coordination between factory owners and those in charge of them with the civil defense apparatus, through holding various courses.

• Publish brochures and posters periodically in the region, with the need to keep up with developments in all areas of public safety [11-15].

Occupational Health and Safety Standards Osha Standard For Occupational Safety and Health

A set of workplace health and safety regulations issued by an agency within the United States Department of Labor.

• Its function is to impose restrictions and obligations on the degree of exposure to chemicals

• The extent of the employee’s ability to access the necessary information and requirements

• It includes taking all measures and precautions that limit the negative effects on the activity of a place.

• The main objective of this standard is to establish a series of basics and guidelines related to risk management.

• This comes in light of presenting a model adopted globally at the level of organizations

• And companies that apply risk management processes and consider them as an alternative to the standards and models used in various industries [16-24].

Discussion

Occupational safety and health: Its functions, goals, security and safety conditions

The most important objectives of occupational safety and health are:

• Prevent injuries and illnesses in the workplace

• Promoting occupational health

• Ensure regulatory compliance

• Create a culture of safety

• Providing training and education

• Conduct risk assessments

• Implement safety management systems

• Monitor and evaluate performance

• Facilitate collaboration and communication

• Reducing economic costs

Occupational safety and health jobs

• Risk assessment

• Risk control

• Regulatory compliance

• Workplace safety programs

• Health promotion

• Emergency preparedness

• 7 Empowering workers

Occupational safety and health: The Conditions for security and safety at the work site are:

• Duties of the safety supervisor

• Safety conditions related to the use of cranes and their accessories

• Safety conditions when carrying out drilling work

• Safe handling of electrical current on site

• Safe handling when using scaffolds

• Cleanliness of the site

• Instructions related to industrial safety

• Safe ways to store raw materials, tools, and tools

• First aid

• Preserving the site and its workers from the toxic spread of gases and cases of suffocation when using chemical or biological materials, or even in the case of using insecticides such as Dur-Span and others in the case of combating termites and other insects that may be present at the work site [25-29].

What is Occupational Safety and Health?

Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) is the system concerned with ensuring the safety, health and well-being of people involved in the course of work, and involves identifying, assessing and mitigating risks and hazards in the workplace to prevent accidents, injuries, illnesses and deaths [30,31].

Occupational Safety and Health Objectives

Occupational safety and health aims to achieve many goals to ensure the well-being and protection of workers in various industries. Some of these goals include:

1. Prevent injuries and illnesses in the workplace: The primary goal of occupational safety and health is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and deaths by identifying and mitigating workplace hazards and hazards [32].

2. Promoting occupational health: Companies that implement occupational safety and health standards and procedures strive to enhance the physical and mental health of workers by addressing occupational health issues such as exposure to hazardous materials, ergonomic hazards, and workplace stress [33]. For your information, ergonomic risks or human factors risks are physical conditions that may cause the risk of injury to the musculoskeletal system, such as the muscles or ligaments of the lower back, the tendons or nerves of the hands/ wrists, or the bones surrounding the knees, leading to a musculoskeletal disorder [34].

3. Ensure regulatory compliance: Companies that implement occupational safety and health standards and procedures will ensure compliance with occupational safety and health regulations, standards and guidelines established by government agencies to protect worker safety and health [35].

4. Create a culture of safety: Companies that want to implement occupational safety and health standards and procedures will aim to promote a safety culture within workplaces, where safety is valued, prioritized and integrated into all aspects of work operations and decisionmaking processes [36].

5. Providing training and education: Companies that implement occupational safety and health standards, procedures, and principles provide training and education programs for workers and employers to raise awareness about workplace hazards, safe work practices, and emergency procedures [37].

6. Conduct risk assessments: Companies that apply occupational safety and health standards, procedures and principles conduct risk assessments to identify, evaluate and prioritize workplace hazards and develop strategies to control or eliminate them [38].

7. Implement safety management systems: Occupational safety and health standards, procedures and principles help companies develop and implement effective workplace safety management systems, policies, procedures and practices [39].

8. Monitor and evaluate performance: Companies that apply occupational safety and health standards and principles monitor and evaluate workplace safety to identify areas for improvement, measure progress, and ensure continuous reinforcement of safety standards [40].

9. Facilitate collaboration and communication: Health and safety organizations facilitate collaboration and communication between workers, employers, government agencies, and other stakeholders to address safety and health concerns and promote effective safety management practices [41].

10. Reducing economic costs: By preventing workplace injuries, illnesses, and deaths, occupational safety and health helps reduce the economic costs associated with lost productivity, medical expenses, workers’ compensation claims, and legal liabilities [42].

Occupational Safety and Health Jobs

The main functions of occupational safety and health include:

Risk assessment: Identify and evaluate workplace hazards, including physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial factors that may pose risks to worker safety and health [43].

1. Risk control: Implement measures to eliminate or reduce workplace hazards through engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment, including designing safer work methods, providing training and education, and ensuring the availability of appropriate safety equipment [44].

2. Regulatory compliance: Ensure compliance with occupational safety and health regulations, standards and guidelines set by government agencies such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the United States or the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) in; the United Kingdom [45].

3. Workplace safety programs: Develop and implement safety management systems, policies, procedures and training programs that promote a culture of safety and encourage active participation and cooperation of workers and management [46].

4. Health promotion: Addressing occupational health issues such as exposure to hazardous materials, ergonomic hazards, workplace stress, and mental health concerns through preventive measures, health promotion initiatives, and medical monitoring programs [47].

5. Emergency preparedness: Planning and preparing for workplace emergencies and disasters, including fire safety, evacuation procedures, first aid, and emergency response protocols [48].

6. Empowering workers: Encouraging workers’ involvement and participation in occupational safety and health initiatives, including forming safety committees, taking feedback from them and hearing their suggestions [49,50].

Conclusion

Occupational safety and health: Security and safety conditions at the work site. The responsibility for implementing safety rules lies with (the contractor-the employer-the safety monitor). The safety rules and protection methods that must be followed on construction sites are:

1. Duties of the safety supervisor

Providing continuous security at the site with (implementing the following preventive conditions):

• Implementing civil defense preventive directives.

• Organizing the site evacuation process in emergency situations.

• Prevent smoking and sources of ignition on the site.

• Placing information signs for dangerous places.

• Supervising the maintenance of fire equipment.

• The safety supervisor is directly responsible to the site foreman.

2. Safety conditions related to the use of cranes and their accessories

• It must be licensed to operate and equipped with safety equipment.

• It contains instruction panels for operation and maintenance in Arabic.

• The levers and handles of the crane operation are provided with locking devices.

• Installing the cranes with the designated supports to ensure their stability.

• Clear vision for the driver to control the operation and movement of the crane or provide an assistant for him.

• Automatic brake operation when the crane stops working.

• Adherence to the declared weight of the load.

• Protect people inside the crane cage with doors that only open from the inside and when it is stopped.

• Installing tires and loads when using trucks or hand carts.

• Qualifying people who use pulling and lifting equipment.

3. Safety conditions when carrying out drilling work

• Excavation work must be carried out under the supervision of the competent engineering authority.

• Securing the site and its vicinity when using explosives and obtaining permits to do so.

• Make temporary supports to prevent the sides of the excavation from falling on workers

• Create barriers made of ropes and pipes equipped with colored warning tape at a distance of (1) meter from the edge of the excavation.

• Determine the locations of cables (electricity, telephone, water) before starting excavation work.

4. Safe handling of electrical current on site

Electrical current has many risks that may not be noticeable at first glance. Therefore, it must be strictly prohibited and security and safety regulations must be followed when dealing with it, according to the following instructions:

• Suitability of electrical appliances for dangerous places.

• Use appropriate personal protective equipment when dealing with electricity.

• Keep flammable materials away from electrical appliance locations.

• Replace damaged connections (wires) with new ones.

• Install and tie the ends of the wires when connecting and do not leave them dangling.

• When dealing with devices that use electrical current, the following instructions must be followed

• Ensure that the electrical current is connected or not before starting work.

• Do not touch electrical wires and leave a sufficient distance.

• Use insulated floors that are not affected by water.

• Do not use any electrical source that is broken or has any distortion.

• Unplug electrical appliances after completing work.

5. Safe handling when using scaffolds

• The design and installation of scaffolds conform to the engineering department’s specifications

• Installing scaffolding on flat ground

• The quality of the scaffolding boards and that they are free of burrs and coatings.

• Fasten and secure the scaffolding well to ensure its stability.

• When the building is more than two stories high, the scaffolding is made of (iron-aluminum).

6. Cleanliness of the site

• Providing the necessary waste bins.

• Cleaning all daily work areas.

• Allocate tightly locked boxes for paints and thinners and do not pour them into the drains.

• Keep wood away from sources of ignition.

7. Instructions related to industrial safety

• Apply technical safety rules when using machines to maintain them.

• Wear protective clothing and helmets.

• Providing the site with warning signs for dangerous places.

• Lighting barriers to avoid falling into pits.

• Not housing workers on site.

8. Safe ways to store raw materials, and tools

• Materials and raw materials must be protected from weather factors (rain-frost).

• Materials and raw materials must be protected from moisture by raising them off the ground on wooden or iron pallets.

• Homogeneity of materials during storage.

• Stack the bags in an orderly manner and at a height not exceeding (8 bags).

• Wash tools and equipment after each use.

• Dismantle the machine parts, clean them well after each use, and reassemble them.

moisture and water.

• Wipe the tool parts and tools with oil to prevent rust.

• Arranging and storing tools and tools according to type and size.

9. First Aid

• It must be available in workplaces, and be in the form of (fixed box-mobile bag).

• Features of first aid

• It must be simple in form.

• Quick to open when in use.

• Organizing and arranging its contents for easy and convenient access.

10. Contents of the First Aid Kit

Tools: These include (scissors-tweezers or dried ones-pins and clips-a thermometer, thermometer).

Replacements: They include (skin cleanser, gauze, plaster, and various sizes of ties).

Disinfectants: These include (skin cleanser, Dettol, Microchrome, and iodine tincture).

Ointments: as antibiotics (for burns-skin allergies).

• Eye drops.

• Compression bandage

Acknowledgement

None.

Conflict Of Interest

The author’s declared that they have no conflict of interest.

References

Citation: Waheeb R (2024) Improving Performance by Achieving Occupational Safety, Health Daily Life and Work. Qual Prim Care. 32:08.

Copyright: © 2024 Waheeb R. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.