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Mini Review - (2023) Volume 9, Issue 3

Dysmenorrhea: Understanding and Managing Menstrual Pain
Víctor García*
Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain
*Correspondence: Víctor García, Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain, Email:

Received: 28-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. ipgocr-23-16673; Editor assigned: 29-Apr-2023, Pre QC No. IPGOCR-23-16673 (PQ); Reviewed: 12-May-2023, QC No. IPGOCR-23-16673 (Q); Revised: 18-May-2023, Manuscript No. IPGOCR-23-16673 (R); Published: 26-May-2023, DOI: 10.36648/2471-8165.9.3.18


Dysmenorrhea is a medical term used to describe painful menstrual cramps experienced by women during their menstrual cycle. It is a common gynecological condition affecting millions of women worldwide. The term "dysmenorrhea" originates from the Greek words "dys," meaning difficult or painful and "meno," meaning month. This condition can significantly impact a woman's quality of life and may require medical intervention for effective management. In this essay, we will explore the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and available treatments for dysmenorrhea. There is two types of dysmenorrhea Primary and secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea refers to menstrual pain that occurs without any underlying medical condition. It usually begins during adolescence, shortly after a girl starts her menstrual cycle.


Dysmenorrhea; Prostaglandins; Anti-inflammatory drugs


Secondary dysmenorrhea, on the other hand, is caused by an underlying medical condition, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or pelvic inflammatory disease. Secondary dysmenorrhea typically starts later in life and may worsen over time. The exact causes of primary dysmenorrhea are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to the release of prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that cause the uterus to contract during menstruation. These contractions can lead to pain and discomfort. In secondary dysmenorrhea, the pain is often associated with the underlying condition causing the menstrual cramps [1]. These are often described as a dull, throbbing pain in the lower abdomen. The severity of the cramps can range from mild discomfort to intense pain.

Literature Review

Many women experience lower back pain during menstruation, which may radiate to the hips and thighs. Some women may experience gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea, along with their menstrual pain. Hormonal changes during menstruation can trigger headaches or migraines in some women. Menstrual pain can be physically and emotionally draining, leading to fatigue, irritability, or mood swings. To diagnose dysmenorrhea, a healthcare provider will typically perform a thorough medical history and physical examination. They may ask about the nature and intensity of the pain, its impact on daily activities and any associated symptoms. In some cases, additional tests, such as ultrasound or laparoscopy, may be recommended to rule out underlying conditions. Dysmenorrhea, commonly known as menstrual cramps, is a condition that affects many women during their reproductive years. It refers to the pain and discomfort experienced before or during menstruation. This article aims to explore the causes, types, symptoms and available treatment options for dysmenorrhea, providing a comprehensive understanding of this condition and offering strategies for managing menstrual pain effectively [2].


Primary dysmenorrhea occurs without any underlying medical condition and is typically experienced by adolescents and young women. It is caused by increased prostaglandin production, which leads to excessive uterine contractions and pain. Secondary dysmenorrhea, on the other hand, is characterized by menstrual pain that is associated with an underlying medical condition, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or pelvic inflammatory disease. Common symptoms of dysmenorrhea include cramping pain in the lower abdomen, lower back pain, headache, nausea and fatigue. The severity of symptoms varies from mild to severe, often interfering with daily activities and quality of life. To diagnose dysmenorrhea, healthcare professionals may conduct a physical examination, review medical history and order additional tests, such as ultrasound or laparoscopy, to identify any underlying causes. There are several approaches to managing dysmenorrhea and alleviating menstrual pain. For primary dysmenorrhea, over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen or naproxen, are often recommended to relieve pain and reduce inflammation. Hormonal contraceptives, such as oral contraceptive pills or hormonal patches, can also be prescribed to regulate menstrual cycles and reduce pain [3].

In cases of secondary dysmenorrhea, treatment focuses on addressing the underlying condition. This may involve surgery to remove fibroids or endometrial tissue, antibiotics for pelvic inflammatory disease, or hormone therapy to regulate hormonal imbalances. Lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, applying heat to the abdomen, practicing relaxation techniques and maintaining a healthy diet, can also help manage menstrual pain. In addition to conventional treatments, alternative approaches can complement the management of dysmenorrhea. These include acupuncture, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS), herbal remedies like ginger or chamomile tea and dietary supplements such as omega-3 fatty acids and magnesium. However, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before trying any alternative treatments to ensure their safety and effectiveness [4].

Living with dysmenorrhea requires adopting self-care practices and coping strategies to minimize the impact of menstrual pain on daily life. Engaging in regular physical exercise, practicing relaxation techniques like yoga or meditation, maintaining a balanced diet and getting adequate sleep can contribute to overall well-being and reduce pain levels. Tracking menstrual cycles, identifying triggers and adjusting activities accordingly can also help in managing pain more effectively. While mild menstrual pain is common, severe and debilitating pain should not be ignored. If dysmenorrhea symptoms significantly disrupt daily activities or if new or worsening symptoms arise, it is crucial to seek medical advice. A healthcare professional can provide an accurate diagnosis, determine the underlying cause and recommend appropriate treatment options to alleviate pain and improve quality of life. The management of dysmenorrhea aims to relieve pain and improve a woman's quality of life [5,6].


Over-the-counter pain relievers like ibuprofen or naproxen sodium are often the first line of treatment for dysmenorrhea. These medications help reduce prostaglandin production, alleviating pain and inflammation. Birth control pills, patches, or Intrauterine Devices (IUDs) containing hormones can regulate menstrual cycles, reduce prostaglandin levels and alleviate dysmenorrhea symptoms.

Applying a heating pad or taking a warm bath can help relax the muscles and relieve menstrual cramps. Regular physical activity, such as walking or gentle stretching, can help reduce pain and improve overall well-being. Relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing or meditation, may also help manage.



Conflict of Interest

The author has no conflicts of interest to declare.


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Citation: García V (2023) Dysmenorrhea: Understanding and Managing Menstrual Pain. Gynecol Obstet Case Rep. Vol.9 No.3:18.

Copyright: © García V. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.