Biomarkers Journal Open Access

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The Emerging Potential of Securin Upregulation, Premature Anaphase Separation: Sister Chromatid Exchanges as Intermediate End-points to Monitor Oral and Esophageal Carcinogenesis

Anupam Chatterjee*, Chongtham SovachandraSingh, Atanu Banerjee, Nabamita Boruah, PoojaSwargiary, B Nongrum and Suvamoy Chakraborty

Objective: The oral and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma are very common in India and their highest incidence has been reported in north-eastern states. Of the several factors that are implicated for these cancers, the habit of chewing raw Areca Nut (AN) with or without tobacco appears to be highly relevant. These cancers have a poor prognosis when the diagnosis is delayed, but curative treatment is possible if the diagnosis is early. The present objective is to validate the screening of Securin upregulation, the frequency of Precocious Anaphase (PAS) and Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCEs) in non-target cells like human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes (PBLs) as early indicative parameters of AN with and without tobacco users.

Design: Peripheral blood was collected from 220 donors of which 124 were noncancerous and 96 were cancerous. All the cytogenetical end-points were evaluated from lymphocytes culture whereas the expression of Securin gene was assessed by immunohistochemistry and/or by qRT-PCR.

Results: A significant increase in the frequency of PAS, aneuploid cells and SCEs was observed in all AN/tobacco users compared to non-users. The frequency of aneuploidy cells was more in cancerous people than non-cancerous ones. The level of Securin was increased significantly in all AN/tobacco users than non-users. Such upregulation of Securin was also observed in the tumour tissues.

Conclusion: Upregulation of Securin and elevated frequency of PAS and SCEs in the PBL of both cancerous and non-cancerous people with AN/tobacco consumption habit indicate that these end-points can give relevant information on the genotoxic effect and could become potential intermediate biomarkers for risk assessment.

Published Date: 2021-12-31; Received Date: 2021-12-10