Skeletal muscle is a complex organ in the body that has pivotal roles in movement, respiration, metabolism, and other normal daily activities. Owing to its contractile activity, oxygen consumption and metabolic functions, oxidant species, such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) or Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) are continuously generated in skeletal muscle. ROS/RNS have been reported to have dual functionality in skeletal muscle: They may induce oxidative damage, tissue dysfunction, and myopathy, but they can also regulate various biochemical processes, such as gene expression, calcium signaling, and contractility to confer beneficial effects on the organism. In skeletal muscle, the precise action of ROS/RNS has been found to be linked to their concentration. At lower concentrations, they generally act as regulatory molecules to enhance muscle force and muscle function; however, at higher concentrations, they may cause oxidative damage leading to a decreased muscle performance and occurrence of atrophy. The present review has shed light on the physiological and pathological roles of ROS/RNS in skeletal muscle health and discussed their possible mechanisms of action.
Published Date: 2023-09-12; Received Date: 2023-08-15