European Journal of Experimental Biology Open Access

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Diabetic Retinopathy: Origin and Complications

Ankur Rohilla, Rupesh Kumar, Seema Rohilla, Ashok Kushnoor

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes associated with irreversible loss of blindness. Various types of DR have been reported like mild non-proliferative retinopathy, moderate non-proliferative retinopathy, severe non-proliferative retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy. A number of signaling mechanisms like nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), cyclo-oxygenase (COX), intracellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), interlukin-1beta (IL- 1β) has been found to be implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. The review article critically explains the signaling mechanisms and complications associated with DR. Moreover, the strategies to treat DR have been discussed in the present review article.