Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Journal Open Access

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Determination of Lethal Dose (LD50) of Venom of four Different Poisonous Snakes found in Pakistan

Ghazala Parveen, Firdous Khan M, Hussain Ali, Tanveer Ibrahim and Rahim Shah

Pakistan is the highly fertile region for the envenoming and deadly snakes. The envenoming fatality and snake bite cases are increasing day by day not only in Pakistan but also in World. In Pakistan, almost 40,000 snake bite cases and 8000 fatal cases has been identified. This high-risk issue needs to be addressed with an easy accessible and affordable treatment by producing anti snake venom serum. LD50 (50% Lethal Dose) of venom is the prime parameter to determine the toxicity and lethality of venom extracted from the four poisonous snakes present in the Pakistan. The main objective of this study waste produces highly potent and costeffective anti-snake venom serum by the determination of LD50. The venom was extracted from four different species of snakes i.e., Echis carinatus, Vipera russelli, Bungares caeruleus and Naja naja (Cobra) present in Biological Production Division of NIH, Pakistan. The four to five serial dilutions were injected intravenously into the mice tail and observations were recorded to calculate the LD50 of each species by Reed and Munch method in Bacteriology section of Quality Control Laboratory, National Institute of Health, Islamabad. Then 3 to 5 fold LD50 is the neutralization dose of Anti-snake venom serum used for the calculation of ED50 of each batch/lot of anti-snake venom serum(as per WHO). The results of the study shows that LD50 of Naja Naja (Cobra) lies approximate between 6 to 7 μg/dose, Echis carinatus (Saw Scaled Viper) 11 to 12 μg/dose, Vipera russelli (Russel viper) 5 to 6 μg/dose and Bungares caeruleus (Krait) 4 to 5 μg/dose in intravenous injection of dilution.