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Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Associated Factors among People Living with HIV/AIDS at Gobba Hospital, Southeast Ethiopia: An Institutional based study

Bikila Lencha

Background: Both Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) remain major public health problems in Ethiopia. Good adherence to anti retro viral therapy is necessary to achieve the best virological response, lower the risk that drug resistance will develop, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the level of ART adherence in Ethiopia; particularly in Bale Zone. This study was aimed to determine the level of adherence to antiretroviral therapy and associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS who attend ART clinic in Gobba Hospital, Bale zone of Ethiopia.

Objective: To assess the level of ART adherence and associated factors among people living with HIV-AIDS who attend ART clinic in Gobba Hospital.

Methodology: An institutional based cross- sectional study was carried out from December 2014 to June 2015 among 239 HIV positive adults in Gobba Hospital. Simple random sampling method was used to select study participants. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was analyzed by using SPSS software version 21 and the magnitude of association between the different variables in relation to the adherence to ART was assessed through chi square test and fisher exact test. The results were presented by using appropriate frequency and percentages.

Results Of the total 239 respondents, 217 (90.8%) had adherence to their ART medication. Twenty (9.2%) of them were none-adherent to take their ART drugs as prescribed. The main reasons for missing doses were forgetfulness (36.4%), and being away from home (22.7%) among others. Adherence to ART was associated with factors such as drug abuse (p= .004), interaction with clinician (p=.019), feeling comfort while taking medication in front of others (p=.009) and attending appointments regular (p=0.001)

Conclusion: The level of adherence to ART among PLWHA was relatively higher when compared with studies done in other developing country. The major reasons for missing doses were forgetfulness, away from home (travel), being busy with other things, felt sick and sleep. It is important to provide information to patients on their treatment plan to ensure patients keep their regular follow up, to improve patient’s trust with clinician