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Commentary - (2022) Volume 6, Issue 1

Types and the Treatment of Cancer
Andres Reed*
Department of Oncology, EUCLID University, Gambia
*Correspondence: Andres Reed, Department of Oncology, EUCLID University, Gambia, Email:

Received: 03-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. iprjo-22-12625; Editor assigned: 05-Jan-2022, Pre QC No. iprjo-22-12625 (PQ); Reviewed: 19-Jan-2022, QC No. iprjo-22-12625; Revised: 24-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. iprjo-22-12625 (R); Published: 31-Jan-2022, DOI: 10.36648 /iprjo.6.1.1


The ability to spread rapidly is known as Cancer. This ability of the cancer to spread is known as metastasis. In also damages the remaining healthy cells of the body. One of the causes of cancer is mutation that takes place in the DNA and the other are uncontrolled growth of the cells. Mutations can be inherited from the ancestors due to the defective genes or they might be because of the radiations, carcinogenic substances or smoking and many other unhealthy habits.

Cancers are classified into several types based on the origin. They are, Carcinoma which indicates that it is originated from the upper surface cells. Colon, lung, breast, prostate pancreas cancer come under the category of carcinoma. Sarcoma is the one originating from the connective tissues, bone and cartilage cancers are included in this type. Lymphoma is the cancer that originates from the lymph node. Leukaemia usually started in the proliferating cells of the blood. Mutation inactivates tumour suppressor gene, which leads to the proliferation of cells. These mutations lead to the formation of oncogene. This mutation inactivates more tumour suppressor genes which finally leads to cancer.

Many of the cancers are caused because of the infections by microorganisms like Helicobacter pyroli, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Human immunodeficiency virus and Papilloma virus. Cancer can be avoided by quitting smoking, limiting alcohol intake, maintaining a healthy weight, consuming plenty of whole grains, fruits and vegetables. The intake of processed foods or meat must be reduced. Direct exposure to the sunlight also must be avoided. Vaccinations have also been started to prevent the infection by some carcinogenic viruses. There are many kinds of cancer treatments which include Hormonal therapy, Radiation therapy, targeted therapy, chemotherapy and palliative care.

Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer by using Cytotoxic or ANTINEOPLASTIC agents there is classification of these agents, which are used based on the criteria of cancer. Targeted therapy is also a kind of chemotherapy which only concentrates on the molecular differences between the normal cells and the cancer cells. This targeted therapy is mostly used in the treatment of thyroid cancer, prostate cancer, lymphoma, kidney cancer, leukaemia, liver cancer. Radiation is another form of treatment for cancer where they use ionization radiation to cure the symptoms. Surgery is most preferred treatment for the cancer where the cancerous tissues are isolated to prevent the spread of cancer. There is also another risk with cancer which is metastasis, the ability to spread or migrate from one organ to another.

The palliative care is mostly focused on increasing the quality of life rather than focusing on the cancer cells. In immunotherapy the immune system of an individual is boosted to fight against cancer. In laser therapy, high intensity beam is used to destroy the tumours, this is mostly preferred for the superficial kind of cancers. The diagnosis of cancer is usually done through screening tests, blood tests, X-ray and CT scan and other endoscopies. Sometimes histological studies of the cell are also necessary in order to come a conclusion. There are many research studies going on to improve the cancer treatment.



Conflict of Interest

We have no conflict of interests to disclose and the manuscript has been read and approved by all named authors.

Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.