European Journal of Experimental Biology Open Access

  • ISSN: 2248-9215
  • Journal h-index: 45
  • Journal CiteScore: 34.35
  • Average acceptance to publication time (5-7 days)
  • Average article processing time (30-45 days) Less than 5 volumes 30 days
    8 - 9 volumes 40 days
    10 and more volumes 45 days
Reach us +32 25889658

Research Article - (2013) Volume 3, Issue 4

The study of the effect of stress management program on transactional model constructs in Yazd teachers of primary schools

Maryam Mohammad1*, Sayed Saeed Mazloomy Mahmoodabad1, Davood Shojaei Zadehe2, Abolfazl Barkhordari1, Fatemeh Hosaini1, Mohammad Hossein Kaveh3, Amal Saki Maleh4 and Mohammadkazem Rahiminegad1

1Department of Health Education, Faculty of Health Sciences, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

2Department of Health Education, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3Department of Health Education, Faculty of Health Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

4Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jondishapoor University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

*Corresponding Author:
Maryam Mohammad
Department of Health Education, Faculty of Health Sciences
Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
Visit for more related articles at European Journal of Experimental Biology


The most important factors influencing teachers’ efficiency are stress and gradual exhausting which affect on student, s teaching and training. Since Transactional Model has been considered as one of the most complete one concerning stress, the researchers decided to perform this survey to determine the effect of stress management program on Transactional Model constructs in Yazd teachers of Primary school. The Study was interference, quasiexperimental one. The sample population concluded 100 people of Yazd teachers of primary schools. Simple random categorized approach was applied for sampling. PSS, and the questionnaire planned based on Transactional Model were applied for data collection. Validity and reliability of these two had been confirmed before. Interference process was done in eight sessions. Appraisal was performed in three periods: before, immediately after the period ended, and one month later the teaching process ended. SPSS version 15, were applied for data analyzing. A population of 57 female and 43 male (average age of 42.85±5.39) participated in the study. According to the results obtained, the stress value in boy schools (38.15±7.70) was higher than girl schools (39.26±5.11). Variance analysis results showed a significant difference between pre- test, post- test and follow up scores mean in general. Pierson correlation results, also represented a direct and opposite relationship between the model constructs and perceived stress value. Regression analysis results indicated that 71% of perceived stress variance is rationalized by Transactional Model constructs. Totally, the results of the study showed that stress management program decreased stress so; it can be used for stress management interferences.


Transactional Model, Stress management, teacher- primary school


Nowadays some problems; such as environmental pollution, traffic, family problems and some other social disorders have a great effect on declining of the spirituality, humanity and emotional feeling and finally made the man to be prone to mental problem[1] Stress is considered as one of the major causes of diseases and threats to physical and mental health among all people in all ages which try to cope with [2-4]. Today, job stress has dramatically been prevailed in work environments and almost all the people experienced it [5]. Job stress is one which a person experienced in a certain job resulting from person status and work situations which affected each other [6].

Most cure professions including nursing, medicine and other human services ones are considered stressful [7]. Teaching is also particular in view of the responsibility to health, bliss and activities of the students. Teachers are responsible for promotion of knowledge, pedagogy of students and creating discipline so, teachers, stress is of different type [8].

Although many teachers are fond of their job and experience little strain, several surveys have documented that up to a third of the teachers consider teaching as highly stressful [9]. According to the results, teachers are affected by stress: 30.5% and 3.2% of them are subject to high and very high risk range respectively [10]. Since To achieve the quality of work life, regular effort are required by the organizations which offer the employees more opportunities for their job and improvement in the quantity and quality of education in any country depends on the educational system [11-12] and In spite of researches indicating high stress value among Iranian teachers and their reasons, less applicable enterprise has done so; the researchers have done the present study to determine the effect of stress management program on Yazd teachers of primary schools.

Materials and Methods

The study was interference, quasi-experimental one. The sample population concluded 100 people of Yazd teachers of primary schools in 2013. Simple random categorized approach was applied for sampling. First, the teachers were divided into two male and female categorizes, so of each selected random. Questionnaires consisting of questions concerning demographic features, PSS questionnaire and Lazarus and Folkman Transaction Model- based questionnaire were used for data collection. PSS questionnaire 14-questions version was also used [13]. According to Likert Scale, five choices were planned. Each choice was taken 1 to 5 score. Scores range was between 14 (maximum stress) and 70 (minimum stress). A Transactional Model-based questionnaire was applied to evaluate Transactional Model constructs (primary appraisal, secondary appraisal, problem management, emotional regulation, meaning- based coping, adaptation, moderators) which its validity and reliability were fully measured by researchers. Content validity approaches and determining CVR, CVI, confirmatory factor analysis methods were applied to study validity and internal adaptation respectively. The results represented goodness of fit of the model. Criterion- related validity using Pierson correlation showed a significant estimation power (r=0.75), (p<0.001). Cronbach's alpha coefficient (σ=0.87) represented good reliability of the instrument. According to Likert Scale, each question was taken 5 choices and assigned 1 to 5 score. After the questionnaire was planned and confirmed by experts, sample group was selected. Then, the explanatory plan, plan goal and a university letter of introduction were submitted department of education. A license for on the job training program was issued by the department officials. The participants entered the course consisting of eight 60-90 min sessions based on syllabuses and contents determined. The framework was lecturing, panel discussion and team work [table-1]. Appraisal was done in three phases: before the course began, immediately after, and one month later the course ended. The questionnaires were answered by participants. In addition to, another questionnaire was given them to answer in home before final test held. This questionnaire contained theses questions: the stress which has been experienced, its features, family type, organizational or beyond organizational one, being successful or not the approach applied. Evaluation was done before interference, immediately after it and one month later. SPSS version 15, Repeated Measures analysis test and Multi-variable regression using step by step method were applied to analyze the data and their statistic deduction respectively [14].


Table 1: Results of repeated measures variance analysis on Transactional Model constructs of pre-test, post test and follow up


A population of 57 male (57%) and 43 male (43%) of Yazd teachers of primary schools (their average age was 42.85± 5.39) participated in the study. 85 people of them had a BA degree and the major of 73 people was primary education. 49 people of them have being taught more than 20 year.

According the results, the stress value among females (39.33±5.22), singles (41.50±5.26), boy schools (38.15±7.70) was more than males (38.88±7.43), married (43.31±6.69) and girl schools (39.26±5.11) respectively, but the differences were not significant statistically. In view of coping approaches, females applied emotional adjustment and meaning- based coping more than males. Table-1 shows the effect of education on Transactional Model constructs.

To determine whether there is a difference between model constructs scores mean in pre-test, post-test and follow up or not, the means were compared using repeated measures variance analysis method. The variance analysis results indicated that the difference between pre-test, post-test and follow up scores mean is significant generally [table-1]. Mauchly,s Test results, of course, confirmed “equality in covariance between dependant variables” presupposition and the figures validity.

Additionally, results of pair comparisons showed the differences of pre-test, post-test and follow up [Table-2]. According to the results, the educational program has generally decreased stress. Differences between the means in the three phases have shown to determine to which phase it related.


Table 2: Results of pair comparison of pre-test, post- test and follow up

Following the basic analyses done, Pierson correlation coefficient was measured and signified to study the relationship between affecting constructs. Results represented a direct and opposite relationship between these constructs and perceived stress value(except for primary appraisal), i.e., the more the meaning- based coping, emotional regulation, problem management, adaptation and moderators, the less conceived stress value.

As shown in diagram-1, primary appraisal variables and secondary ones directly affect behavior, and of the second one is more. Also, moderators and primary appraisal variables both directly and indirectly affect behavior. Emotional regulation, problem management, meaning- based coping, adaptation and moderators’ constructs also affect behavior indirectly. Direct and indirect effects of the constructs have shown in Table-3.


Figure 1: Analysis pattern of the path based on Transactional Model construct


Table 3: Total effect of constructs on estimation of adaptation against stress

Multi- variable regression analysis using step by step method was applied to analyze data and determine how the coping approaches affect the stress. Perceived stress value and model components were entered regression equation as estimate variable and scale one respectively. Results showed that 71% of perceived stress value is rationalized by Transactional Model constructs so that 69.6 of which is just due to primary and secondary appraisal.


As the results showed, primary and secondary appraisals rationalized a significant value of perceived stress value variance. According to Lazarus and Folkman[15], appraisals play an important role in determining person facing response. Whether the person uses a facing response and how much (s)he face it, seemingly depends on that has (s)he recognized the situation due and dangerous or not? These results confirm Lazarus and Folkman, and Chank studies [15-16].

The results also showed a significant and opposite relationship between problem management, emotional regulation and perceived stress value. Findings which conform other researchers results, are rationalized according to Lazarus and Folkman Model [17] which claims cognitive skills are used in coping process to solve the problem. The person applies a sufficient coping method of cognitive skills to solve the problem. Thus, coping approaches are directly studied to remove the problem and a psycho logic satisfaction is gained.

On the other hand, this approach causes mental solidarity and decreases emotional anxiety. In the light of the severity, stress source and its controllability are more recognized. Gaining these two, increases mental health. Selfconfidence engendered, decreases anxiety and increases mental health too.

Of the results were also that females apply emotion-based approaches and meaning-based coping more than males, although the difference is not significant. Most researches show no gender effect in using coping methods, but Billy et al [18]. Research showed that females applied emotion-based approaches in stress perception and coping more than males. Day and Levingstone [19] found that females and males applied emotion-based and problem- oriented approaches respectively. The results, therefore, indicate that gender plays an important role in using emotion-based approaches i.e., females incline such approaches more than males.

Findings also represent an opposite and significant relationship between adaptation and stress; and secondary appraisal and perceived stress. According to Singer theory, being aware of stress and coping and adaptation approaches affect cognitive evaluation and stress decrease considerably.

In view of correlation, there is an opposite and significant relationship between Transactional Model constructs (except for primary appraisal) i.e., improvement of any model constructs will decrease perceived stress value. As represented, the high correlations relate to secondary appraisal construct (results control, emotions and selfsufficiency) and primary appraisal ones. Clark states that self-sufficiency estimates perceived stress and satisfaction levels significantly. Mausbach research shows a significant, negative and opposite relationship between selfsufficiency value and perceived stress [20-21]. When a situation is considered as threatening, primary appraisal will be an important estimation in view of psychological signs. The more evaluation of abilities in the face of stressful situation, the less psychological signs and stress.


The results represent that stress management program decreases stress; therefore it can be used for stress management interferences. Since the most important determinant variables in this study were related to primary and secondary appraisals, the policies and plans which improves these factors is recommended.


This study was approved and supported by Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, School of Health. And The authors would like to express his appreciation to the subjects for their participation in this study.