Journal of Neuro-Oncology and Neuroscience Open Access

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Commentary - (2022) Volume 7, Issue 6

The Chromatic Regions of the Human Chromosomes and it's Effectiveness
Xiong Zheng*
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, China
*Correspondence: Xiong Zheng, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, China, Email:

Received: 01-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. IPJNO-22-15058; Editor assigned: 03-Nov-2022, Pre QC No. IPJNO-22-15058(PQ); Reviewed: 17-Nov-2022, QC No. IPJNO-22-15058; Revised: 22-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. IPJNO-22-15058(R); Published: 29-Nov-2022, DOI: 10.21767/2572-0376.22.7.58


Although there are significant differences between human genomes (on the order of 0.1% due to single-nucleotide variants and 0.6% when considering indels), these differences are significantly smaller than the differences between humans and their closest living relatives, bonobos and chimpanzees (1.1% fixed single-nucleotide variants and 4% when including indels). The human genome is a complete set of nucleic acid sequences that are encoded in DNA. Base pair sizes can also vary. After each round of DNA replication, the length of the telomere decreases.

DNA sequencing has completely established the human genome sequence, but our understanding of it is still incomplete. The majority of genes, but not all of them, have been identified using a combination of bioinformatics and high-throughput experiments. However, there is still a lot of work to be done to better understand how their protein and RNA products are used in the body (in particular, the annotation of the entire CHM13v2.0 sequence is still in progress). But then, covering qualities are very normal, at times permitting two protein coding qualities from each strand to reuse base co-ordinates two times (for instance, qualities DCDC2 and KAAG1). Recent findings suggest that most of the genome’s vast quantities of noncoding DNA are involved in biochemical processes like controlling gene expression, arranging chromosome architecture, and controlling epigenetic inheritance through signals. There are also a lot of retroviruses in human DNA, at least three of which have been shown to play a significant role in placenta formation by inducing cell-to-cell fusion (HERV-K, HERV-W, and HERV-FRD, which are like HIV).

Like the genomes of all other living things, the human one is made up of long DNA polymers. In every human cell, these polymers are maintained in duplicate as chromosomes. The sequence of their constituent bases guanine [G], adenine [A], thymine [T], and cytosine [C] encodes the specifics of the corresponding organism’s molecular and physical characteristics. In addition to providing the machinery necessary to express the information contained within the genome, these polymers sequence, organization, and structure, as well as the chemical modifications they contain, enable the genome to replicate, repair, package, and otherwise maintain it. Additionally, the genome is necessary for the human organism to survive without it, no cell or tissue could survive for more than a short time. The fundamental information for the renewal of these cells, as well as many other types of cells, can be found within the genome. For instance, red blood cells (erythrocytes), which only live for approximately 120 days, and skin cells, which only live for approximately 17 days on average, both need to be renewed in order to maintain the viability of the human body.

The chromatic regions of the human chromosomes are effectively covered by the assemblies 25% of the genome is in scaffolds of 10 million bp or larger and more than 90% of the genome is in scaffold assemblies of 100,000 bp or more. Exons make up only 1.1% of the genome, while introns make up 24% and intergenic DNA makes up 75%. Throughout the genome, segmental block duplications, which can be as large as chromosomal lengths, are common and reveal a complicated evolutionary history.



Conflict Of Interest

The author’s declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Citation: Zheng X (2022) The Chromatic Regions of the Human Chromosomes and its Effectiveness. Neurooncol. 7:58.

Copyright: © 2022 Zheng X. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.