Journal of Neuro-Oncology and Neuroscience Open Access

  • ISSN: 2572-0376
  • Journal h-index: 5
  • Journal CiteScore: 0.38
  • Journal Impact Factor: 0.36
  • Average acceptance to publication time (5-7 days)
  • Average article processing time (30-45 days) Less than 5 volumes 30 days
    8 - 9 volumes 40 days
    10 and more volumes 45 days
Reach us +32 25889658

Short Communication - (2022) Volume 7, Issue 6

Study of Living Organism Immune System and their Characterstics
Gan Luo*
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, China
*Correspondence: Gan Luo, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, China, Email:

Received: 01-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. IPJNO-22-15463; Editor assigned: 03-Nov-2022, Pre QC No. IPJNO-22-15463 (PQ); Reviewed: 17-Nov-2022, QC No. IPJNO-22-15463; Revised: 22-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. IPJNO-22-15463 (R); Published: 29-Nov-2022, DOI: 10.21767/25720376.7.6.57


The medical study of vulnerable systems in humans, creatures, shops, and other sapient species is known as immunology, and it’s a branch of biology and drug. As a result, we can see that veterinary drug and beast biosciences mortal immunology and relative immunology differ. Medicine and epidemiology are intertwined in classical immunology. It investigates the connection between the vulnerable system, pathogens, and the body’s systems. The pest that struck Athens in 430 BCE is where the foremost written citation of impunity can be set up. According to Thucydides, individualities who had recovered from a former bout of the complaint were suitable to watch for the sick without contracting the complaint again.


This miracle is mentioned in numerous other ancient societies, but the idea didn’t come a scientific proposition until the 19th and 20th centuries. The abecedarian discipline of immunology is the disquisition of the functions and relations of the vulnerable system’s cellular and molecular factors. There’s an ingrain vulnerable system, which is more primitive, and an acquired vulnerable system, or adaptive vulnerable system, in invertebrates. Cell- intermediated and humoral factors are farther sub-divided into the ultimate. It’s now getting decreasingly apparent that the vulnerable system plays a part in the onset of a variety of common conditions that were preliminarily allowed. To be vulnerable- mediated, similar as metabolic, cardiovascular, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer’s. In addition, contagious conditions like Tuberculosis, Malaria, Hepatitis, Pneumonia, Dysentery and Helminthic Infestations have direct goods on the vulnerable system. Because of this, advances in biomedical exploration, biotechnology, and ultramodern drug all depend heavily on exploration in immunology. Tone andnon self-recognition is capabilities of the vulnerable system. A substance that initiates the vulnerable response is known as an antigen. Lymphocytes are the cells that play a part in feting the antigen. Antibodies are made when they fete. Antibodies are proteins that kill the microorganisms that beget complaint. Antibodies don’t kill pathogens directly; rather, they identify antigens as targets for other vulnerable cells, like phagocytes or NK cells, to destroy [1-4].


There are two types of vulnerable cells in the body. Those are ingrain to the body and those that are responsive to an implicit pathogen or foreign substance. According to evolutionary proposition, the first line of defense is the ingrain impunity system. It lacks particularity and has a static resistance (it doesn’t get better over time and there’s no memory for posterior exposures). This includes physical defences like cilia, commensal foliage, acidic gastric contents, fever, and skin and epithelial shells. There are also biochemical defences like interferon’s, fibronectin, answerable lysosyme, and the acute phase reactants and complement. Natural killer cells and RES phagocytes are exemplifications of cellular factors. The commerce between antibodies and antigens is what’s known as the (antibody) response. Antigens are anything that triggers the product of antibodies (antibody creators), whereas antibodies are specific proteins released from a specific class of vulnerable cells known as B lymphocytes. Understanding the cellular response to these two natural realities is abecedarian to immunology.



Conflict of Interest

The author’s declared that they have no conflict of interest.


Citation: Luo G (2022) Study of Living Organism Immune System and their Characteristics. Neurooncol. 7:57.

Copyright: © 2022 Luo G. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.