The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wakoshi Saitama, Japan
Received Date: March 08, 2017; Accepted Date: April 01, 2017; Published Date: April 10, 2017
Citation: Ozaki S. NOx is Best Compound to Reduce CO2. Eur Exp Biol. 2017, 7:12. doi:10.21767/2248-9215.100012
Copyright: © 2017 Ozaki S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The earth is warmed up by the burning of fossil fuel. If we can compensate the generation of CO2 and heart by CO2 assimilation, global warming can is protected. To promote CO2 assimilation, supply of nutrient N and P is most important. Nature has a system to provide NOx when materials are burned or by thunder. These NOx is critically important for plant growth. When fossil fuel burned, much NOx is produced. If we use all produced NOx, we can protect global warming. Large amount of N and P is contained in drainage. The drainage should be released as it is. Deep sea water contain much nutrient N and P. Shallow sea water contain very little nutrient N and P. Agitation of deep sea water with shallow sea water increase the plankton growth. These methods are effective methods to protect global warming and to increase food and wood productions.
NOx; Carbon dioxide; Thunder; Carbon dioxide assimilation; Global warming
The earth is warmed by the fossil fuel burning releasing CO2 and heat. The plant is growing by CO2 assimilation absorbing CO2 producing carbohydrate and O2. If we can compensate the generation of CO2 and heart with the absorption of CO2 and heart by CO2 assimilation, global warming can be protected [1-5].
Plankton photosynthesis is studied by many investigators [6-11]. It is estimated that between 50%-85% of the world's oxygen is produced via plankton CO2 assimilation [12,13]. The growth of plankton is dependent on nutrient N and P availability. Supply of nutrients is important factor for the plankton productivity [14-16]. When fossil fuel burned, much NOx is produced. If we use produced NOx as it is, we can fix CO2 and protect global warming.
In this paper I will describe the methods to protect global warming by increase of CO2 fixing by the increase of nutrients N and P .
NOx is a Gift from Nature
Nature has systems to change N2 to nutrient nitrogen. By thunder, the high temperature at fire place for cooking, warming up of room by burning of wood, by forest fire, by forest burning, by bonfire, and also burning of fossil fuel, following reactions proceed [18-20].
1/2 N2+1/2 O2 -------> NO-21.6 kcal
2 NO+O2 ----------> 2 NO2+13.5 kcal
3 CO2+H20 ----------> 2 HNO3+NO
NOx is a mixture of 90% NO and 10% NO2. NOx is dissolved in rain and give nutrient nitric acid and promote the growth of plant and plankton .
The earth was boon and plant appeared and plant eat CO2, H2O and nutrient N , P and plant is burned then NOx is produced to recover lost plant. When no burning material present, like sea district, thunder storms makes NOx [22-26]. NOx is a gift from nature. We should not go against nature. We should use NOx as it is. In 2010 fossil 1.4 × 1010 billion tons was burned and CO2 4.4 × 1010 billion tons and NOx 2.4 × 109 billion tons are produced. If we use all NOx for the fixing of CO2, we can fix 2.5 × 25 × 109=5 x 1010 billion tons CO2. As C/N ratio [66,67] of plant is around 5/1-50/1 (average 25/1) [27-30].
NOx is hated as pollution gas causing illness. Many governments set up very strict law to eliminate all NOx in burned gas and forced to eliminate NOx using ammonia. I wish to insist that NOx elimination should be stopped because toxicity of NOx is not so serious compared with significant merit of NOx. NOx is essential for plant to grow and produce food [31-33]. NOx is essential for the promotion of CO2 assimilation and essential for the production of foods for the promotion of health and long life for the protection of global warming [34,35].
Toxicity of NOx
No report as to the serious sick and dead person caused by NOx is reported.
NOx is released at no person district such as sea side far from house. NOx do not give serious damage to persons . NOx is essential for the growth of plant and essential for the production of food and essential for all living biology. Therefore NOx elimination procedure and NOx elimination law should be eliminated [37-39].
Thunder Produce NOx, Yellowtail, Crab and Delicious Rice
Thunder produces NOx from N2 and O2. About 4 million thunders in one day and about 30 × 106 t NOx is produced by thunder in one year and about 20-80% of NOx is produced by thunder in the world [40-43].
At Japan sea coastal area, many snow falls occur. This district is highest snow fall district in the world and snow pile up to 2-3 m. At this district, thunder happen very often with snow. Ishikawa prefecture 42.4 day, Fukui prefecture 35.0 day, Niigata prefecture 34.8 day, Toyama prefecture 32.2 day, Akita prefecture 21.4 day in a year are top 5 prefectures in 47 prefectures in Japan. Thunder at winter time is different from thunder at summer time. Winter thunder run from earth to cloud and has several hundred times stronger energy than summer time thunder and happening day and night very frequently producing much NOx [44-46]. At the near sea, Gulf Toyama (Toyamawan) and surrounding sea are rich in nutrient N from thunder produced NOx and filled with plankton producing many Yellowtail (Buri) and Crab (Kani), therefore thunder is called as Buriokoshi (yellowtail producer)  .
These 5 prefectures produce very much delicious rice since thousand years when no synthetic fertilizer is produced. There are proverbs, many thunder year produce good harvest, one thunder lightning gives one inch growth of rice [48,49]. Thunder lightning is written as Inazuma (Rice wife). Kaminari (thunder) in Japanese character is written Ame (rain) on the top Ta (field). Most snow falling (3 meter) district Minami Uonuma is famous for the production of most delicious rice Minamiuonuma koshihikari [50,51].
On the contrary, at Setoinland sea (sea between Shikuku and Chugoku in Japan) district, especially middle part of Setoinland sea between Okayama and Kagawa Prefecture, thunder is very rare, once in 5 years . Therefore no NOx is produced by thunder at this district. Fish industry of this district was destroyed almost completely since the supply of NOx was stopped by NOx elimination law . These facts indicate that NOx is playing very important role for the protection of global warming and production of foods [54,55].
Methods to Reduce CO2
Paris agreement asks us to reduce CO2. To reduce CO2, we can do by reducing the emission of CO2 and by increase of CO2 fixing .
NOx elimination should be stopped
Large amount of NOx is produce when large amount of fossil fuel is burned. The amount of NOx produced is around 2.5 × 109 tons in whole world. To eliminate NOx 2.5 × 109 tons, equimolar ammonia 11.3 billion ton is used . To make 11.3 billion tons ammonia, 2 billion tons hydrogen gas is used. To make 2 billion tons hydrogen, 6.4 billion tons butane is used. As a result, 17.6 billion tons CO2 is released. If NOx elimination is stopped, 17.6 billion tons CO2 release can be stopped. And 17.6 × 25=440 billion tons CO2 can be fixed [58,59].
Stopping of drainage treatment
Drainage contains nutrient N and P. To treat drainage, huge electrify is used. To make this electricity, 0.60 million fossil fuel are used in Japan. If we stop the drainage treatment, we can save the release of CO2 one million tons [60,61]. Each house need not to pay drainage treatment fee 20$ per month. Ocean, field and wood dumping of drainage are encouraged .
By stopping of drainage treatment and NOx elimination at burned gas, and by releasing of NOx 2 million tons and nutrient P 0.5 million tons, CO2 2 × 25=50 million tons can be fixed and fish 20 million tons can be produced in Japan [63-65]. By insufficient supply of nutrient N caused by NOx elimination law, fish industry suffered critical damage at Kuroshio (poor nutrient N, P) running sea especially at Seto inland sea district where no thunder and no supply of NOx by thunder. Tuna (maguro), Bonite (katsuo), Sardin (iwashi), Bream (tai), Mackerel (saba), Octopus (tako), Sea eel (anago), Oyster (kaki) decreased to 20%. Sea weed (nori) decreased to 0%. Many fisherman lost job [66-68]. Fish price increased five times and fish became much expensive than meat now. We Japanese can alive longest (Men 80.50 (third), women 86.63 (top)). The author studied the reason why Japanese can alive longest and found that Japanese eat fish as main protein source. Fish contain hyaluronic acid, glucosamine and chondroitin which are precursors of anti-aging reagents [84-90]. We Japanese may lose long life record from the fact that fish production was reduced remarkably by NOx elimination law [69,70].
Stopping of high temperature garbage incinerator
In Japan, special law about garbage incinerator was set up in 2002 by the reason NOx is not eliminated completely at lower temperature than 800. Operation of this incinerator requires excessive fuel and produce excessive CO2 [71-74]. If we burn garbage at lower temperature, we can save 0.3 million tons fuel and we can save the release of CO2 0.6 million tons . And we can produce NOx 0.3 million tons and we can fix CO2 0.3 × 25=7.5 million tons. Each house need not pay garbage burning fee 20$ per month [76-78].
Extension of rice plantation area
In Japan rice production area was restricted to keep high price. No planted rice field is 1 million hector [79,80]. If we use full field, CO2 14 million tons can be fixed. And if we plant wheat at winter time at the same field as rice at summer time, CO2 30 million tons can be fixed [81,82].
Agitation of deep sea water and shallow sea water
70% of earth is covered by sea . 70% of CO2 assimilation is carried out at sea. Sea contains enough N and P [84,85]. Plankton grow at cold sea because cold sea is rich in N, P. North Atlantic ocean and north Pacific ocean are plankton rich seas and produce much fish. Kuroshio current (running south east of Japan) is clean and contain very small amount of nutrient N and P, and produce small amount of plankton and fish. Oyashio current (running north of Japan) produce much plankton and much fish [86-88].
Current running west sides of United State, Canada and Chili are rich in nutrient N and P and rich in plankton and fish . Concentration of N and P on the surface of sea at 100 m south of Muroto is 1 μg/l and 0.3 μg/l respectively. Concentration of 1000 m deep sea is N-3.3 μg/l, P-2.9 μg/l. Therefore agitation of deep sea water with shallow sea water is very important method to get high N, P concentration . We must study to stir deep sea water with shallow sea water by wind or tide. Plankton production and Kaki (Oyster) production is already got success at Kumejima, Okinawa .
CO2 assimilation is most important for the protection of global warming and for the production of food and wood. NOx is plying most important role for the promotion of CO2 assimilation. NOx elimination should be stopped. Nutrient N and P in drainage must be used. If we use produced NOx as it is, we can fix CO2 and protect global warming.