Journal of Intensive and Critical Care Open Access

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Commentary Article - (2022) Volume 8, Issue 11

Improved Performance of Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membrane with Click Modified Polysulfone Substrate
Abdol Mohammad Ghaedi*
Department of Chemistry, University of Islamic Azad, Iran
*Correspondence: Abdol Mohammad Ghaedi, Department of Chemistry, University of Islamic Azad, Iran, Email:

Received: 01-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. IPJICC-22-15142; Editor assigned: 03-Nov-2022, Pre QC No. IPJICC-22-15142 (PQ); Reviewed: 17-Nov-2022, QC No. IPJICC-22-15142; Revised: 22-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. IPJICC-22-15142 (R); Published: 29-Nov-2022, DOI: 10.35248/2471-8505.22.8.113


Membrane fluidity can be affected by many factors. One way to increase membrane fluidity is to heat the membrane. Lipids gain thermal energy when heated. High-energy lipids move more, randomize and rearrange, making the membrane more fluid. Cholesterol stabilizes membranes and increases their melting point at elevated temperatures, thus acting as a bidirectional regulator of membrane fluidity. On the other hand, at low temperatures, it intercalates between phospholipids, preventing aggregation and hardening. Losartan is also known to alter membrane viscosity. Another way to change the fluidity of the membrane is to change the pressure. Supported lipid bilayers and monolayers can be artificially generated in the laboratory. Even in such cases, we can talk about the fluidity of the membrane. The fluidity of these membranes can be controlled by the applied lateral pressure. Cell isolation from the environment is a universal feature of microscopic life. The plasma membrane fulfills this role and its integrity is critical for cell function and survival. Therefore, the structure and composition of the plasma membrane change to provide resistance to damage in different cellular contexts. Despite this protection, various factors present in the extracellular and intracellular environments (herein referred to as stressors) can induce chemical or physical disruption to the plasma membrane. Not all injuries lead to cell death, but even sublytic injuries can profoundly alter the intracellular landscape through leakage from the cytosol and exposure to the external environment. Membrane fluidity can be measured using electron paramagnetic resonance, fluorescence, atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy, or deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Electron spin resonance measurements observe the behavior of spin probes in films. Fluorescent probes incorporated into the membrane are observed in fluorescence experiments. Atomic force microscopy experiments can measure the fluidity of synthetic or isolated patches of natural membranes. Solid-state deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy involves observation of deuterated lipids. These techniques complement each other in that they work on different timescales. Membrane fluidity can be described by his 2 types of motion: Rotational motion and lateral motion. Electron spin resonance uses the rotational correlation time of a spin probe to characterize how the probe is constrained by the membrane. For fluorescence, the stationary anisotropy of the probe can be used in addition to the rotational correlation time of the fluorescent probe. Fluorescent probes exhibit varying degrees of preference for being in environments with restricted movement. In heterogeneous membranes, some probes are only found in the more fluid regions of the membrane and other probes are only found in the less fluid regions of the membrane. The probe distribution preference is also a measure of membrane fluidity. In deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the average carbon-deuterium bond orientation of deuterated lipids gives rise to specific spectroscopic signatures. All 3 techniques provide some measure of the time-averaged orientation of the relevant (probe) molecule, indicating the rotational dynamics of the molecule. Skeletal muscle cells are reported to be repaired primarily by 2 active mechanisms: Patch-mediated repair and cap-mediated repair (a protein-centric mechanism), in addition to local cytoskeletal remodeling. Exocytosis of endomembrane structures (mainly lysosomes) has been reported to patch wounds in the sarcolemma.



Conflict Of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Citation: Ghaedi AM (2022) Improved Performance of Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membrane with Click Modified Polysulfone Substrate. J Intensive Crit Care. 8:113.

Copyright: © 2022 Ghaedi AM. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.