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Commentary - (2023) Volume 14, Issue 1

Immobilization Procedures for Microarray: Difficulties and Applications
Taisun Kim*
Department of Chemistry, Hallym University, Korea
*Correspondence: Taisun Kim, Department of Chemistry, Hallym University, Korea, Email:

Received: 02-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. aasrfc-23-16710; Editor assigned: 04-Jan-2023, Pre QC No. aasrfc-23-16710 (PQ); Reviewed: 18-Jan-2023, QC No. aasrfc-23-16710; Revised: 23-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. aasrfc-23-16710 (R); Published: 30-Jan-2023, DOI: 10.36648/0976-8610.14.1.07


The highly programmable arrangement of atoms (biomolecules, nanoparticles, nanospheres, nanocomposites) on surfaces offers potential applications in the fields of biosensors, biomolecular devices, and nanodevices. In any case, conventional methods involving self-assembled monolayers neglect nanometer-scale particle assembly to generate exceptionally tailored monolayers at the surface level. In the current article, we describe different methods of surface immobilization of biomolecules to provide microarrays and their empirical applications. The strengths and weaknesses of different strategies are analyzed. In addition, this article provides insight into how various innovations can be used to detect and isolate viral or bacterial genotypes and localize biomarkers. In addition, a short overview is presented containing 115 references from the last decade on the organic use of microarrays in various fields. Microarrays (DNA chips) are important devices for high-throughput analysis of biomolecules. The use of microarrays to uniformly screen nucleic acid and protein profiles has recently become an industry standard for drug development and biomarker identification. Advances in DNA chips hinge on the science used to immobilize DNA tests. Furthermore, DNA chip results depend on the great openness and availability of surface binding tests, the thickness of connections, and the reproducibility of connection science. There are two transcendent techniques for developing oligonucleotide microarrays.

Direct assembly of oligonucleotides on the chip surface using photolithographic and statement strategies. The in situ amalgamation method enables the fabrication of thick oligonucleotide microarrays. Nevertheless, it has certain drawbacks. A disadvantage of the affidavit strategy is that hybridization performance decreases with increasing fixed sample thickness and the fixation technique becomes less reproducible. Moreover, spots on such surfaces often exhibit uneven property distributions. Further drawbacks are increased hybridization temperature, decreased hybridization productivity, and extended hybridization time. Strategies to hybridize oligonucleotides at room temperature with high availability and performance are therefore important in the field of DNA chip innovation.

The DNA chip display has been overshadowed by several issues such as test schedules, reaction conditions during detection, hybridization and washing conditions. In addition, the obfuscation of ambiguous constraints, the distance between the oligonucleotides and the surface, also contributes to the factors that contribute to the problems of DNA chips. Parallel distribution between immobilized oligonucleotides also determines the display of DNA chips. An interesting piece of parallel distribution between oligonucleotides was observed in a number of series of studies. The lateral separation properties are useful not only for the creation of DNA chips, but also for various proteins, aptamers, and small particles using DNA co-immobilization (DDI) technology is also useful for creating So far, attempts have mainly been made to control the horizontal distribution between oligonucleotides on Au substrates using mixed self-assembled monolayers. Immobilization of oligonucleotides by lateral dispersion not only guarantees the openness of the desired test, but also increases the hybridization yield. In this article, we review some advances in DNA immobilization used to develop symptomatic DNA chips.


Practical adsorption is the least complex immobilization strategy, as it does not require nuclear corrosive modifications. Immobilization was accounted for by considering the ionic transfer between the negatively charged bundles present during DNA testing and the positive charges covering the surface. The subsequently fixed DNA can be heterogeneous and heterogeneous.



Conflict Of Interest

The author states there is no conflict of interest.

Citation: Kim T (2023) Immobilization Procedures for Microarray: Difficulties and Applications. Adv Appl Sci Res. 14.07

Copyright: © 2023 Kim T. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.