Journal of Prevention and Infection Control Open Access

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Review Article - (2022) Volume 8, Issue 1

Analysis of Covid-19 Infection and Convalescent Plasma Therapy an Effective Therapeutic and Covid-19 Clinical Chemistry of Laboratory
 
1Department of Zoology & Biotechnology, A Veeriya Vandayar Memorial Sri Pushpam College, India
 
*Correspondence: Azhagu Madhavan S, Department of Zoology & Biotechnology, A Veeriya Vandayar Memorial Sri Pushpam College, India, Email:

Received: 03-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. IPJPIC-22-11446; Editor assigned: 05-Jan-2022, Pre QC No. IPJPIC-22-11446 (PQ); Reviewed: 19-Jan-2022, QC No. IPJPIC-22-11446; Revised: 24-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. IPJPIC-22-11446 (R); Published: 31-Jan-2022, DOI: 10.36648/2471-9668.8.1.81

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic brought about by the SARSCoV-2 has been a phenomenal worldwide wellbeing challenge. There have been 24,193,010 affirmed instances of COVID-19 around the world influencing 216 nations and 826,141 passings, as of August 27, 2020. In India, there have been 3,310,234 cases with 60,472 passings. Coronavirus, may require genuine thought treatment or even consider, the use of mechanical ventilation for patients with respiratory dissatisfaction. An intense respiratory disorder (ARDS). Human to human transmission through beads, tainted hands just as surfaces, has been uncovered with a brooding period differing from 2-14 days. Computerized reasoning (AI) has a high potential to examine a tremendous measure of clinical information in a negligible measure of time and contributes a huge effect on handle this pandemic flare-up. The in-silico approaches used in this examination may similarly be used to review the adequacy of a sweeping extent of repositioned or conceivably inventive drug candidates before clinical evaluation. Likewise, it may improve poor clinical consequences of these patients. A dataset was built to inspect Vietnamese understudy’s learning propensities during the time schools were suspended because of the novel Covid - SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), in response to a call for interdisciplinary examination on the likely impacts of the Covid pandemic.

Keywords

Improving plasma; sars-cov-2; killing antibodies; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19

Introduction

In any case, data on ailments related with other exceptionally pathogenic Covids (ie, serious intense respiratory disorder and the Middle East respiratory condition) may give experiences into Covid malady 2019’s belongings during pregnancy. The COVID-19 pandemic has made remarkable harm the instructive framework around the world. Other than the quantifiable monetary effects temporarily and long haul, there is elusive obliteration inside instructive establishments. Specifically, educators the most basic scholarly assets of any schools need to confront different kinds of monetary, physical, and mental battles because of COVID-19. As of May 25, 2020, the novel Covid sickness (called COVID-19) spread to in excess of 185 nations/ areas with in excess of 348,0 0 passings and in excess of 5,550,00 con-solidified cases. In the bioinformatics region, one of the essential focuses is the investigation of the infection nucleotide groupings utilizing approaches, for example, information stream strategies and calculations. Nonetheless, to make possible this methodology, it is important to change the nucleotide successions string to mathematical stream portrayal. An endeavor was made to comprehend the hole among wellbeing and social weakness to Covid-19 pandemic. By utilizing multistage inspecting method, 150 examples were gathered during March-April 2020. Information feature that families are profoundly presented to novel Covid-19, and furthermore similarly delicate to lacking and helpless accessibility and availability of clean water, sterilization and medical services framework. Information recommend a grass root mindfulness program (exrisk preventive measures) in the provincial dialects; increment general wellbeing financial plan to fulfill the need and improve the gracefully chain; foundation of more physical and human framework in since quite a while ago run; far reaching intend to guarantee constant water flexibly in the rustic zones. The current pandemic of the Novel Corona infection (COVID-19) has come about in multifold challenges identified with wellbeing, economy, and society, and so on for the whole world. Numerous numerical epidemiological models have been pursued for the benefit capable information of the COVID-19 pandemic with the center target to notice the pattern and directions of contaminated cases, re-coveries, and passings, and soon Be that as it may; these models have their own suspicions and boundaries and fluctuate with territorial demography. Who directed physical separating in an exacting, moderate way, and didn’t do physical removing didn’t contrast in parts of pay and admittance to food, admittance to fundamental administrations, social wellbeing nets, and resources. In any case, it shows contrasts in versatile limit and dependability in certain things. Then, in opposite, gatherings of respondents who were separated dependent on the wellspring of principle pay and the assessed span of monetary flexibility demonstrated a critical distinction nearly across things both in pay and food access factors, admittance to fundamental administrations, social wellbeing nets, resources, versatile limit, and steadiness. A few things that should be featured are the expansion in the water charge, admittance to help, and the quantity of families didn’t show huge contrasts either in respondents who are recognized dependent on physical separating designs, types of revenue, and the assessed length of financial strength.

This example shows that the water utilization design is moderately consistent in any network conditions. While help or advance is certifiably not a pivotal viewpoint for all example classifications, yet other ability that conceivable to make it monetarily advantage is a significant perspective. At last, the quantity of families doesn’t turn into a differentiator, maybe due to the enormous number of relatives followed by countless monetarily profitable families. The information shows the allure of examples and attributes of the Medan people group as far as their monetary versatility. The reason for this exploration was to examine factors that might impact the decrease of the spread of COVID-19 of every a region setting. The accompanying free builds are investigated: actual wellbeing, mental health, Intellectual health, scholarly wellbeing, enthusiastic health and social wellbeing. Notwithstanding the individual ward factors, the impact of these builds on the decrease of COVID-19 transmission and worker execution at a chose district was tried. Speculations arose out of the proposed impact of every one of these develops on decrease of COVID-19 transmission at a district.

(I) Number of days since the primary case;

(II) Number of days since the main demise;

(III) Aggregated number of cases since the principal case;

(IV) Collected number of passings since the principal passing;

(V) Date of first affirmed passing,

(VI) Date of first affirmed case.

At last, we likewise give the most recent COVID-19 lethality rate for every nation. At the hour of this investigation, the SARSCoV- 2 infection that caused the COVID-19 pandemic has spread fundamentally over the world. Thinking about the vulnerability regarding strategies, wellbeing chances, monetary troubles, and so forth the online media, particularly the Twitter stage, is encountering a high volume of movement identified with this pandemic.

Among the interesting issues, the captivated discussions about unsubstantiated drugs for the treatment and counteraction of the infection have pulled in critical consideration from online media clients. In this work, we present a position informational collection, COVID-CQ, of client created con-tent on Twitter with regards to COVID-19 prepared the first information in three critical manners. To begin with, we standardized nation names to utilize them as consolidating key since there were minor contrasts for the sake of the nations among the datasets. Second, we utilized the most cutting-edge variable at whatever point the distinctive datasets gave similar variable to various occasions. Third, new factors were designed to advance the dataset, which incorporates the vast majority of the epidemiological factors referenced up until this point for example, we give the date of the main COVID-19 case in every nation, in any event, for the ones that had the primary case before February 15, 2020, the principal date in our dataset. For nations that had the primary case before February 15, we gathered dates from media reports. As Covid spreads far and wide, the investigation of its belongings is of incredible commonsense importance. We ordered information on every day new instances of the COVID-19 flare-ups in the six Western nations of the Group of Seven and the dates of governments’ mediations contemplated the periods when the dates of significant governments’ intercessions necessarily dependent on a fragmented Poisson model. The significant outcomes are distributed in the paper of “Foreseeing defining moment, term and assault pace of COVID-19 episodes in significant Western nations”. To check the viral transmission, travel limitations have been authorized over the world. The last a very long time of 2019 saw the rise of a novel Covid in the human populace. Serious intense respiratory condition Covid 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has since spread over the globe and is representing a significant weight on society. Measures taken to decrease its spread fundamentally rely upon convenient and precise recognizable proof of infection tainted people by the most touchy and explicit strategy accessible, for example ongoing converse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR).

Our proposed corpus varies from the audited informational indexes on different angles. To start with, we just spotlight on the positions of Twitter clients towards a solitary case of “chloroquine and hydroxychloro-quine are remedy for the novel Covid”. Second, zeroing in on a solitary case, our informational index can be utilized to research the elements of sentiments after some time towards the utilization of these medications, because of the exogenous stuns, for example, scholarly distributions and occasions. In this manner, our informational collection fills the holes between the progressions of conclusions over the long run and position arrangement, which is preposterous to expect to examine utilizing existing position informational indexes. Third, considering the difficulties with respect to the genuine derivation of the hidden position in a short content, we moved toward the issue of position comment as a joint marking of tweet and shared URLs if the tweet isn’t plain as day. For example, the Twitter stage forces a most extreme length of 280 characters for each tweet, which prompts the uncertainty of short tweets and the difficulties for the surmising of the genuine positions. Because of this work, we plan to acquaint new difficulties with the field of man-made reasoning, especially, to the plan of position information concentrated grouping models, and to support the plan of calculations that consider the use of all wellsprings of data with the objective of accomplishing exact position characterization of literary substance. This investigation presents a review dataset portraying families’ conditions during the COVID-19 disconnection period got from people who fill in as guardians. An overview was led to gauge the family’s certain or negative enthusiastic responses and the level of their flexibility. The information were arranged into age, sex, kind of family, family size, length of marriage, family’s current circumstance, and family COVID-19 status. The examples were assembled from 365 guardians of Indonesian understudies who were eager to fill an online survey.

Morphology

COVID-19 case definitions: The WHO has distributed case meanings of COVID-19, and individual nations urge to construct up their own definition suitable to the state condition, assets accessible [1]. There are no different models for youngsters starting at now however might be adjusted and changed as information arise and as we come to find out about the illness in kids [2]. Has distributed rules for testing and treatment, being refreshed routinely on the grounds that the situation develops and new logical information arise [3]. According to this, “Coronavirus should be suspecte.

Why COVID-19-affected children manifest only mild illness?: Variable reality of viral defilement in different age bundles wonder. With their youthful safe framework, by and large, youngsters are seriously influenced by flu and respiratory syncytial infection in contrast with grown-ups [4]. In any case, actually, relative the same.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and rennin angiotensin system (RAS): An organically conceivable clarification is that the phone articulation of section receptor ACE2 and the authoritative between the receptor and distinctive in kids from that in grown-ups. Studies are relied upon to find the qualification in renin angiotensin system (RAS) pathophysiology in children and adults and its possible part in choosing the differential aftereffects of COVID-19 [5]. Dysregulation of RAS is referred to in comorbid conditions, for example, hypertension, heart infections and diabetes [6].

Differences in immune system of adults versus children: Resistant framework in kids isn’t completely evolved. There is a chance restricted. On the contrary hand, grown-ups may illness because of their diverse insusceptible response described by extreme irritation vaccination program, and whether must be explained [7]. It must be seen whether previous antibodies against human Covid diseases causing cold or other respiratory infection contaminations or GI diseases present cross-assurance against COVID-19.

Role of co-infections: During H1N1 pandemic, bacterial co-disease with Streptococcus pneumoniae was basic which caused impressive dismalness [8].

Characteristic

An examination delivered on 24 January 2020 recommends that victims with crown microorganism disease have a few basic credits including queasiness, hack, and inconvenience. Most victims had reciprocal peculiarities [9]. In 2020, the bronchoalveolar liquid lavaging Covids in China were bound [1,9]. This is likewise present in examples of blood. Until now, a restrictive pee and dung study has not shown a crown microbe.

Pathogenesis and immune response SARS-CoV-2: Coronavirus is round or pleomorphic, single surrendered, included RNA and made sure about with club shaped glycoprotein. Covids are four subtypes, for instance, alpha, beta, gamma and delta Covid. Each of subtype Covids has numerous serotypes [10].

Sign and Symptoms

Gentle respiratory plot disease, fever on a normal following 5-6 days of contamination (mean reach for brooding 1-14 days) alongside dry hack, dyspnoea, chest torment, weakness and myalgia. More surprising results join headache, dazedness, stomach torture, detachment of the insides, squeamishness, and hurling. Serious intricacies, for example, hypoxemia, intense ARDS, arrhythmia, stun, intense cardiovascular injury, and intense kidney injury have been accounted for among COVID-19 patients. (Questions and answers on Covids). A few cases in China from the start gave just chest coziness and palpitation.

COVID-19 in children

The youngster among the complete number of COVID-19-influenced patients was little and most kids created delicate infirmity. One examination from China has detailed that youngsters matured under 10 yr have similar weakness as grown-ups to get tainted, however far-fetched to create serious sickness. Another examination from China 26 underpins the idea that youngsters are less helpless against COVID-19 contrasted with grownups. In this examination, when the contact of people with acknowledged defilements were followed and pursued for the disease, for each affected adolescent 15 yr, very nearly three people were contamination ages of 20 and 64. Human Covid-19 affected In particular, we see that a discussion has developed in the usage of repositioning drugs, for instance, chloroquine for coronavirus, which legitimizes moving toward the individuals who have the most contribution in this disorder to pass on consistent world, in order to uncover understanding into the choices to come.

Structure of Coronavirus

Covids are minute in size (65-125 nm in breadth) and contain a solitary abandoned RNA as a nucleic material, size extending from 26 kbs to 32 kbs long. The subgroups of Covids family are alpha (a), beta (b), gamma (c) and delta (d) Covid (Figure 1).

Journal-Prevention-Infection-Control-Structure

Figure 1: Structure of SARS-CoV-2

Analysis of COVID-19 Infection

The chief spotlight on the clinical side effects of COVID-19 was insisted to Wuhan’s city introduction. Anyway, the extended dark presented by the Chinese and American Centers of Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) made a few nuclear inspects, for the identification of the different contaminations in the clinical example. Uncovered that distinctive researches were portrayed about Real-time PCR procedures to test for the COVID-19, by focusing on a combination of open understanding edge (Orf), envelope (E), nucleocapsid (N), and RNA-subordinate RNA polymerase (RdRp) characteristics. As of now, there are 115 CDC-qualified exploration offices in the U.S., and around 191 qualified labs around the globe. A patient experiencing fever, hack, windedness inside 2-14 days of introduction, experiences difficulties in breathing with steady agony and\or pressure in the chest, new disarray or failure to emerge, and somewhat blue lips or face is considered as an assumed instance of COVID-19. In case there is no sensible introduction history, suspected patients should meet 3 clinical conditions that incorporate; fever, hack, and windedness. Taking into account the fifth clinical status, chest Computed tomography (CT) sweep can recognize the viral pneumonia, which is seen as a proof of the COVID-19 defilement. What’s more, the Diagnosis and Treatment Program of 2019 New Coronavirus Pneumonia (primer sixth structure), has avoided the term of clinical assessment for the determination of the sickness. As shown by their clinical appearances, avowed patients are characterized into smooth, moderate, genuine, and essential cases.

Committed COVID-19 clinical chemistry laboratory: As a committed COVID lab, all proper measures were taken while setting up the research center to keep contaminations from the irresistible materials and ahead transmission.

Labs and biochemical parameters in COVID-19 management: The clinical labs assume a vital part in surveying seriousness of sickness, picking the appropriate therapy choices and observing the reaction notwithstanding conclusion of COVID-19. In spite of the fact that the nucleic corrosive enhancement tests (NAATs) completed by virology/atomic science research facilities are as of now the best quality level for diagnosing associated cases with COVID-19, management of patients predominantly relies upon hematological, provocative and biochemical boundaries. The biochemical and provocative boundaries examined by clinical science labs help the clinicians in their dynamic and evaluating reaction to their treatment.

Results and Discussion

The progressing Covid sickness 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has introduced significant difficulties to medical services laborers including research facility experts. Clinical labs assume a basic function in this provoking climate by giving data to clinicians with respect to forecast, illness seriousness, and reaction to treatment separated from the determination of COVID-19. This survey article will give data to clinical natural chemists and research center experts to build up a security lab climate during this COVID-19 pandemic. The use of numerical models, manmade consciousness, large information, and comparable approaches are possible devices to anticipate the ex-tent of the spread and viability of regulation techniques to stem the transmission of this illness. In social orders with obliged information foundations, demonstrating and front projecting COVID-19 turns into an incredibly troublesome undertaking. In any case, we propose a web based anticipating system that streams information from the Nigeria Center for Disease Control to refresh the boundaries of an outfit model which thusly gives refreshed COVID-19 conjectures at regular intervals. Information Version Control apparatus DVC, alongside Git for source code variant control, takes into consideration reproducibility so anybody can without much of a stretch imitate our entire pipeline. Covid sickness 2019 (COVID-2019) has been perceived as a worldwide danger, and a few investigations are being led utilizing different numerical models to foresee the likely advancement of this pandemic. These numerical models dependent on different factors and examinations are dependent upon possible inclination. The distinction between instances of one day and instances of the earlier day D (Xn-Xn-1) indicated a non-constant increment in the quantity of affirmed cases. Clear examination of the information was performed to assess the rate of new affirmed instances of COVID-2019 and to forestall possible inclination. We have obtained some information on the infection from arrangement case reports and research center discoveries, while much work stays to be done and numerous inquiries stay unanswered. Proof proposed that the flare-ups of COVID-19 might be associated to its quick individual to-individual transmission capacity. This investigation has discovered important and strong proof of the dynamic profile of SARS-CoV-2 and offered proposal to improve current location strategy and standards for release. The general time of patient contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 was moderately long particularly in elderly people. In this manner, we proposed delayed perception and rehash affirmation of RT-PCR measure from nasal swabs examples for safe releases. The current examination has a few restrictions that should be thought about. To begin with, in this review setting, the precision of SARSCoV-2 RT-PCR may differ (improvement of the location convention and gain of involvement with inspecting). Second, this examination just explored the effect old enough and sex on unique profile of SARS-CoV-2, while different elements were excluded. Third, some data of, for example, RTPCR test after release, time of negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test brings about some included patients were deficient. Along these lines, planned reports with a severe consideration standard and more clinical-neurotic estimation are expected to approve the discoveries.

Improvement in Clinical Symptoms

CP treatment was collectively seen to achieve huge improvement in clinical indications and oxyhaemoglobin immersion. Recovery from most clinical indications of COVID-19 in all the ten patients, particularly fever, hack, chest agony, and dyspnoea was seen inside one to three days after CP bonding by Oxygen immersion extraordinarily improved with two patients weaned off ventilators to high-stream nasal cannula (HFNC) treatment, and one patient was likewise weaned off HFNC.

Summary and Conclusion

In this examination, we deliberately surveyed a forthcoming treatment methodology for COVID-19 patients as recuperating plasma treatment. Serology was integral to RT-PCR for the finding of COVID-19 in any event 14 days after beginning of indications. First line serology testing can be performed with Wantai Ab or Abbott IgG examines, while DiaPro IgG affirmation test can be utilized as a productive affirmation test by all checks, and with demonstrated outcomes, we construed from the examinations that plasma treatment shows huge guarantee in killing neutralizer titers and coming full circle in radical fall in viral burdens, particularly in basically sick patients. The clinical indications and radiological discoveries were seen to improve gigantically subsequent to starting plasma treatment. Research facility boundaries like lymphocyte tally expanded, and incendiary markers (eg, CRP, AST, ALT) demonstrated a descending pattern after plasma imbuement. No unfriendly occasions during bonding were accounted for by any of the explored articles. Nonetheless, the absence of enormous scope randomized control preliminaries, inability to normalize the quantity of antibodies controlled to every patient, counter acting agent subordinate improvement of disease and failure to preclude the impedance brought about by other correspondingly managed remedial modalities like antiviral medications and corticosteroids were refered to as restrictions. Besides, it is difficult to preclude the antagonistic bonding responses and danger of communicating the microbe itself while controlling plasma treatment. Henceforth, we can reason that CP treatment is a promising helpful choice during the COVID-19 pandemic, and there is a need to investigate this treatment methodology completely by putting resources into enormous scope clinical preliminaries. Symptomatic labs in the field direct extra and broader in-house clinical endless supply of novel RT-PCR units. Significantly, none of the measures indicated cross-reactivity towards a board of other respiratory (Covids, aside from the normal cross-reactivity with the SARS-CoV-1 E-quality). Since the last infection is not, at this point known to be flowing in the human populace, we consider this cross-reactivity adequate. Thinking about our discoveries, we accept that the entirety of the economically accessible RT-PCR units remembered for this examination can be utilized for routine diagnostics of indicative COVID-19 patients. When performing infection diagnostics in populaces that might be relied upon to show low popular burdens, for example medical services laborers with gentle or no indications or patients during later phases of the disease. Clinical science research centers are adding to the danger assessment, the board and appraisal of visualization in COVID-19 patients by exploring different biochemical and provocative markers. In spite of the fact that the research facility experts are at the danger of contamination, preparing and embracing the prescribed biosafety measures are essential to limit the danger during this pandemic are hopeful that sharing of our involvement with setting up COVID lab will profit the lab experts to establish a security lab climate and better patient consideration administrations. HCQ is a moderately protected medication utilized for treating numerous ailments, since an exceptionally significant time-frame. The high dosages, delayed term of treatment and co-bleakness, (for example, renal debilitation) that could bring about medication collection may bring poisonous outcomes. HCQ has a power to battle the ailment. Further affirmations are anticipated by more clinical preliminaries and their meta-examination results. It has demonstrated to be powerful in repressing the viral passage into the cell layer and diminishing the viral span of SARS COV 2 in cell culture too in RCT. In this hour of incredible fiasco where no other safe choice has all the earmarks of being a lot of powerful, we infer that HCQ prophylactic and remedial advantages against COVID 19 pandemic exceeds the expected dangers of antagonistic medication responses, which are preventable in nature. For wanted helpful reaction, cautious observing is exhorted. Ideal starting PE therapy followed by IVIG in fundamentally sick patients with COVID-19 may keep the sickness from compounding and help to diminish the necessities for mechanical ventilation and serious strong consideration. Likewise, it might improve poor clinical results of these patients. Randomized controlled preliminaries are direly expected to affirm the viability of PE joined with the followed IVIG in basically sick COVID-19 patients.

The different molec-ular instruments by which chloroquine can accomplish such outcomes stay to be additionally investigated. Since SARS-CoV-2 was discovered a couple of days prior to use a similar cell surface receptor ACE2 (ex-squeezed in lung, heart, kidney and digestive tract) as SARS-CoV-1. Notwithstanding, a lot of time could be spared by in silico testing to decide the capability of any potential enemy of SARS-CoV-2 to disturb the communication of the S protein with the host cell film. Applied to both RBD-ACE-2 and NTD-ganglioside connections, this sub-atomic demonstrating technique will help select those medications that are probably going to meddle with the underlying connection of infection particles to the respiratory parcel surface epithelium. The investigation information up-hold the utilization of CLQ, and lean toward initially CLQ-OH, as starting treatment for patients contaminated with SARS-CoV-2. This is an exceptionally transferable infection; however the death rate is lower comparative with SARS and MERS. Public and global wellbeing specialists have shown great cooperation in the administration of this pestilence, and more worldwide coordinated effort is required. The truth will surface eventually how this story of COVID-19 unfurls. The pandemic by COVID-19 is live issue influencing individuals worldwide without essential restorative mediation flow the executives is to decrease the infection spread and give strong consideration to sickness patients. There is a pressing need to create focused on treatments. Understanding the distinction in pediatric and grown-up reactions to this infection may assist with coordinating safe base therapeutics. The prescriber’s need must be to give best, compelling and pocket cordial treatment to the patients. Plus, hypertension is the most pervasive co morbidity in diabetic patients followed by hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular infection, and weight and kidney sickness. The doctor’s decision of against diabetic medication relies on different elements which incorporate FBS level, HbA1C level, insulin obstruction, renal debilitation and other patient related components. The COVID-19 is as yet testing task with restricted treatment and counteraction measures. The accessible data identified with SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV encourages us to how to deal with the current pandemic circumstance of SARS-CoV-2. These days on a particular immunization and antiviral medications are accessible to treat Covid illness, however by utilizing past enemy of malarial (Hydroxychloroquine), antiviral drug the suggestive treatment of coronavirus disease is conceivable. We can forestall the human-to-human transmission of infection by following rules gave by WHO like social separating, washing hands, and wearing covers and so forth Characterizing the instrument of how Covids cause infection and understanding the host immune pathological reaction will essentially improve our capacity to plan antibodies and lessen sickness trouble.

Acknowledgement

We would like to express our sincerest condolences to the patients and families who suffered from the COVID-19 outbreak.

We also greatly appreciate the healthcare personnel and staff members who worked together to overcome the COVID-19 outbreak.

Funding

None

Competing Interests

None declared.

Ethical Approval

Not required.

REFERENCES

Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.