Journal of Aquatic Pollution and Toxicology Open Access

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Opinion Article - (2022) Volume 6, Issue 5

Acute Toxic Effects of Oral and Dermal Exposure to Smokeless Tobacco
John Kamanula*
Department of Chemistry, Mzuzu University, Malawi
*Correspondence: John Kamanula, Department of Chemistry, Mzuzu University, Malawi, Email:

Received: 31-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. IPJAPT-22-14767; Editor assigned: 02-Sep-2022, Pre QC No. IPJAPT-22-14767 (PQ); Reviewed: 16-Sep-2022, QC No. IPJAPT-22-14767; Revised: 21-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. IPJAPT-22-14767 (R); Published: 28-Sep-2022, DOI: 10.21767/2581-804X-6.5.54


The term smokeless tobacco describes various tobacco products that do not need to be lit. These products are commonly used orally or nasally. When used orally, tobacco is primarily smoked (as dry or moist snuff) or chewed (chewed tobacco), while tobacco is sniffed (dry snuff) when used nasally. Nguilimbo is a type of smokeless tobacco used orally in Malawi. This product is considered a tobacco harm reducer as it is safer than cigarettes as it is not ignited/consumed during use. Nguilimbo is made from a combination of yambo (translucent, deeply entwined plants like tails and shells), cold water, and neighborhood tobacco. Previous findings suggest that the total nicotine content of nearby smokeless tobacco products (LSTP, e.g. Ngirimbo) is an important determinant of the quality of product use and shopper retention. Product pH is an important factor in realistic net nicotine levels when using these products. It regulates the retention and toxicity levels of nicotine because it shows .It creates a competitive avenue between producers and buyers’ propensities and also influences the potential for enslavement.


Studies have shown that smokeless tobacco products contain much more nicotine than nicotine gum and are more carcinogenic. These discoveries are well underway, and it is very likely that Nguilimbo contains dangerous synthetics, high pH levels, and nicotine levels. Despite the way nicotine is commonly used as an activator and anxiolytic, deeply habituating the Central Nervous System (CNS), there are differences in the types of products used, techniques for organizing, and the use of nicotine. It is important to note the amount, consumed. These are important considerations regarding possible harm to individuals. Ngulimbo contains nicotine, which itself has been classified as a natural risk by the Global Office for the Research of Diseases (IARC) and can cause potent oral and dermal toxic effects. Biological studies have shown that the compound can induce habit formation, increase cardiovascular stress, and have effects such as convulsions and seizures. Nicotine is found primarily in alkaloid plants are regularly produced for human consumption as tobacco leaves. Alpha nicotine is simple nicotine with a high affinity for nicotinic receptors. Its ability to intervene at synapse arrival makes it a good option for treating mental health problems such as schizophrenia and neurodegenerative infections such as Alzheimer’s disease. Biological studies have shown that this compound is non-toxic. Therefore, the use of alpha nicotine can replace the use of ngirimbo and other traditional nicotine products to reduce the harmful effects of the ingested substance, depending on the type of nicotine product ingested and the level of ingestion. Furthermore, these studies revealed that the Ngirimbo test contained high levels of clinically significant progeny metals and low levels of heavy metals.


Since these metals are involved in the management of the typical physiological cycle of the human body, studying the convergence of these metals present in Nguilimbo is excellent for assessing the safety of the item. Extending the group of metals beyond their normal physiological range can affect human health. Iron, copper and zinc are basic minerals. The recommended daily intake is 8-18 g iron, 0.9 mg copper, and 8-11 g zinc. Excessive iron intake can promote iron formation in tissues and organs and exacerbate hemochromatosis, while excessive copper intake can actually damage organs such as the liver. Zinc can suppress the ability of the resistance framework, but it can also help treat disease.

Citation: Kamanula J (2022) Acute Toxic Effects of Oral and Dermal Exposure to Smokeless Tobacco. J Aquat Pollut Toxicol. 6:54.

Copyright: © 2022 Kamanula J. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.