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Opinion - (2023) Volume 9, Issue 1

A Polymeric Molecule Plays a Significant Role in Numerous Biological Processes
Maaza Mengiste*
Department of Biochemistry, Mekelle University, Ethiopia
*Correspondence: Maaza Mengiste, Department of Biochemistry, Mekelle University, Ethiopia, Email:

Received: 30-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. IPBMBJ-23-15656; Editor assigned: 01-Feb-2023, Pre QC No. IPBMBJ-23-15656 (PQ); Reviewed: 15-Feb-2023, QC No. IPBMBJ-23-15656; Revised: 20-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. IPBMBJ-23-15656 (R); Published: 27-Feb-2023, DOI: 10.36648/2471-8084-9.01.03


The technique through which the collection and composition of cell molecules like DNA, RNA, and proteins change over generations is referred to as molecular evolution. Patterns in those modifications are defined with the aid of the concepts of population genetics and evolutionary biology inside the area of molecular evolution. The charges and results of single nucleotide adjustments, impartial evolution versus herbal selection, the origins of recent genes, the genetic nature of complicated trends, and the genetic basis of speciation, improvement, and the approaches wherein evolutionary forces have an impact on genomic and phenotypic changes are principal subjects in molecular evolution. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule that performs quite a few critical biological roles, together with regulating the expression, interpreting, and coding of genes. Nucleic acids are RNA and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).


Nucleic acids are one of the 4 fundamental macromolecules that every one recognized existence forms require, alongside lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Although RNA can be located in nature as a single strand folded over itself rather than as a paired double strand, unlike DNA, it’s miles assembled as a sequence of nucleotides. Using the nitrogenous bases of guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine, denoted through the letters G, U, A, and C, cell organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to transmit genetic information that directs the synthesis of specific proteins. An RNA genome is utilized by many viruses to encode their genetic records. By catalyzing organic reactions, controlling gene expression, or sensing and speaking responses to cell alerts, a few RNA molecules play an active position within cells. Protein synthesis, a generic feature in which RNA molecules direct the synthesis of proteins on ribosomes, is the sort of active techniques. Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are used in this method to transport amino acids to the ribosome, wherein ribosomal RNA (rRNA) joins the amino acids to form coded proteins. The chemical structure of RNA and DNA are very similar, however they fluctuate in 3 important approaches: In contrast to double-stranded DNA, RNA typically performs many of its biological capabilities as an unmarried-stranded molecule (ssRNA) with considerably shorter nucleotide chains. However, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and, furthermore, unmarried RNA molecules can shape intrastrand double helixes just like tRNA through pairing complementary bases. Deoxyribose is present in DNA’s sugar-phosphate “backbone,” whereas ribose is present in RNA. Deoxyribose, on the other hand, does not have a hydroxyl institution attached to the pentose ring inside the 2’ role. By decreasing the activation electricity of hydrolysis, the hydroxyl agencies within the ribose backbone make RNA greater chemically labile than DNA. Thymine is the complementary base for adenine in DNA, whereas uracil, an unmethylated shape of thymine, is the complementary base for adenine in RNA.


Self-complementary sequences inside the majority of biologically lively RNAs, which include mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, and other non-coding RNAs, permit components of the RNA to fold and pair with themselves to form double helices, similar to DNA does. These RNAs are surprisingly structured, consistent with analysis. In evaluation to DNA, their systems are composed of clusters of quick helices packed collectively to form proteins-like systems. RNAs, like enzymes, are able to perform chemical catalysis in this manner. For example, the shape of the ribosome, an RNA-protein complicated this is liable for the formation of peptide bonds, found out that the active web page of the ribosome is completely made of RNA.

Citation: Mengiste M (2023) A Polymeric Molecule Plays a Significant Role in Numerous Biological Processes. Biochem Mol Biol J. 9:03

Copyright: © 2023 Mengiste M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which p