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Thermo-gravimetry(TGA) and DSC of thermal analysis techniques in production of active carbon from lignocellulosic materials

Wyasu G., Gimba C. E., Agbaji E. B. and  Ndukwe G. I.

In this study, the thermal behaviours of two lignocellulosic biomass, (Epicarp Fruit shells of Detarium microcarpum and Balanite eaegyptiaca) were investigated using TGA. The activated carbon produced from the precursors were investigated using BET and DSC. On TGA Profile, Balanite aegyptiaca shell decomposed initially with a weight loss of 12.84% at temperature range within 27.4oC to 245.9oC. The decomposition profile shows weight losses of 41.6% for hemicellulose, 43.2% for both cellulose and lignin, which occur at temperature range of 2500C to 3500C, slightly > 3500C and up to 8900C respectively. Detarium microcarpum decomposed initially with weight loss of 15.9% at temperature range of 42.40C to 386.70C due to moisture and volatile matter. The volatilization associated with weight loss of 75.5% within temperature range of 3970C to 5360C is due to the release of hemicellulose and cellulose. Finally, a weight loss of 2.58% occurred within a temperature range of 5400C to 8900C, due to the released of lignin. From the DSC analysis, the level of heat energy flow through the carbon decreases as BET surface area increases. The BET surface area were in the order; ACDMPA > ACDMZC > CAC > ACBAPA > ACBAZC, while that of heat energy transfer through the carbon produced were in this order; ACBAZC > ACBAPA > CAC > ACDMZC > ACDMPA. The thermal behaviour exhibited by the precursors and activated carbon from TGA and DSC results respectively, verified that the precursors are good biomass that produce a good characteristic carbon.

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