European Journal of Experimental Biology Open Access

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The beneficial effects of moderate unsaturated fat diet on reproductive performance of obese rats

Taha Jasim Al Taha, Sanaa Jameel Thamer and Damiah Kasim Suker

Maternal obesity became more prevalence and obese women are suffering from several complications during pregnancy. We investigate the effect of moderate unsaturated fat diet on reproductive performance of obese rats during gestation. The obesity was induced by feeding with high fat diet HF (45%) for 12 weeks with control group LF. The obese rats divided to five subgroups HF-HF (45% tallow), HF-P.d (22.5% peanut), HF-O.d (22.5% olive oil), HF-M.d (22.5% tallow) , HF-LF(10% tallow) before mating and through gestation. The maternal energy intake and body weight were recorded. At gestation day18, dams were sacrificed; blood samples were taken for biochemical and hormonal measurements. The results indicating that feeding with unsaturated fat diet reduced with significantly (p<0.05) maternal food intake in HF-P.d and HF-O.d groups that reflected in lowering body weight during pregnancy, their fetal weight were normal as control group, also modulating fasting plasma leptin and insulin concentrations 5.35 ng/ml ,4.52 ng/ml and 1.48 , 2.19 ng/ml compared to the high levels in high and moderate saturated fat diet groups . The higher values of blood lipids and lipoprotein in saturated fat feeding groups were lowered after feeding with peanut or olive oil. Insulin sensitivity was increased in the unsaturated fat groups which reduced glucose and homeostatic index after impaired with saturated fat groups. Therefore the feeding with saturated high fat diet prior and through gestation increased maternal weight and gestational diabetes that influence on fetal growth, these effects can be regulating by feeding with unsaturated fat diet in moderate percentage which improve all these parameters and in spite of lowering saturated fat in the diet, it showed unfavorable effect during gestation indicating the important role of fatty acid types.