Journal of Childhood Obesity Open Access

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Risk Factors of Overweight or Obesity among 3-year-old Offspring Born to Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy

Hisashi Masuyama*, Takashi Mitsui, Sakurako Mishima, Jota Maki, Eriko Eto, Yosuke Washio, Junko Yoshimoto and Hirokazu Tsukahara

Introduction: Offspring of mothers with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy have a high risk of lifestyle-related diseases, such as obesity and hypertension, during childhood and young adulthood. We investigated the risk factors of overweight or obesity in 3-year-old offspring of mothers with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

Materials and methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study included 383 mothers with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and their offspring delivered between 2009 and 2015 at 13 perinatal centers in Japan. Offspring at 3-years-old were classified according to body mass index into standard (<85th percentile) and “overweight or obese” groups (≥ 85th percentile). We compared maternal and neonatal characteristics between the groups. Logistic regression was used to determine which factors contributed most to the development of offspring overweight or obesity. We also compared differences in offspring physical development and body mass index during the first 3 years of life.

Results: We observed overweight or obesity in 14.3% of 3-year-old offspring. In the “overweight or obese” group, maternal body weight and body massindex before pregnancy and body weight at delivery were significantly greater than those in the standard group. Comparisons between the standard and “overweight or obese” groups using logistic regression analysis revealed a significant difference in body mass index before pregnancy, which was the most influent factor that increased body mass index of offspring by 3 years of age (odds ratio 1.069, 95% confidence interval 1.017-1.123, P=0.01). Significant differences in body mass index were observed between the standard and “overweight or obese” groups from the first 6 months after birth (P<0.001).

Conclusion: Among the “overweight or obese” offspring of mothers with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, maternal body mass index before pregnancy was the most significant factor for increased body mass index in offspring by 3 years of age. When mothers with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy have obesity, their offspring often demonstrate rapid catch-up growth that has been linked to a high risk of childhood obesity.

Published Date: 2023-12-18; Received Date: 2023-11-16