Advances in Applied Science Research Open Access

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Quality of groundwater in Kassena-Nankana district, Ghana and its health implications

Emmanuel Olajide Oyelude, Anim Emmanuel Densu and Evangelist Yankey

The potability of underground water from Kassena-Nankana District of Ghana was assessed using certified standard analytical methods. The water was hard with fluoride levels consistently lower than 0.5 mg/L. The mean physico-chemical quality of the water was average with borehole water slightly possessing better characteristics than water from hand-dug wells. Elevated levels of nitrite, nitrate, arsenic and lead were detected in few samples. The mean bacteriological quality of the underground water of the district was poor. The continuous consumption of the water without proper treatment may lead to health challenges such as: methaemoglobinaemia in infants, cardiovascular diseases, impaired renal function, impaired fertility, hypertension and arsenic toxicity. It is therefore important for the water to be treated before consumption to prevent health challenges.