European Journal of Experimental Biology Open Access

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Morphological, anatomical, cytological and phytochemical studies on Capsicum annuum Linn. (Solanaceae)

Wahua C., Okoli B. E. and N. L. Edwin-Wosu

The present study is set to investigate the micro- and macro-morphological, anatomical, cytological and phytochemical properties of Capsicum annuum Linn. a member of the family Solanaceae predominantly found in the Niger Delta Tropics, Nigeria. It is used as spice, vegetable and medicine. It is one of the extremely pungent pepper. The habit is an annual sub woody plant which attains up to 65cm or more in height. The leaves are simple, glabrous, lanceolate to ovate with apex being acutely acuminate and the base being cuneate or abruptly acute and petiolate measuring 8.2 ± 1.67cm in length and 4.1 ± 0.322cm in width. The glabrous stem is angular and the inflorescence terminal, flowers are axile in placentation borne at nodes. The corolla is whitish and calyx greenish. The berry fruits are many seeded, globose shaped and borne at nodes. The epidermal studies reveal anomocytic stomata and 6.02% for adaxial and 25.95% abaxial stomatal indices whereas the trichomes are simple uniseriate forms having 1.61% for adaxial and 7.69% for abaxial trichome indices. The stomatal characteristics showed that the adaxialstomatal length of 12.7±3.20μm with 25.18% coefficient of variation (C.V.) and width of 8.70±1.98μm with 21.71% C.V., while the abaxial stomatal length of 12.0±1.83μm with 28.56% C.V. and width of 7.6±1.27μm with 16.64% C.V. The anatomy of mid-rib and petiole revealed open vascular system and node is unilacunar having 2 vascular traces from one gap. The stem has 5 to 6 vascular bundles. The petiole is associated with 2 rib traces at primary growth phase. At secondary growth phase, the mid-rib and petiole revealed vascular arcs. The cytological study showed a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 24 and the karyotype revealed a set of telocentric chromosomes. The phytochemical studies revealed the presence of the following secondary metabolites: alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, combined anthraquinones, free anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides.