European Journal of Experimental Biology Open Access

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Microbial Deterioration of Some Archaeological Artifacts: Manipulation and Treatment

Ali Mohamed Omar, Ayman Salah Taha and Amal AA Mohamed

The present study appraises an emphasis on appropriately treating of microbial deterioration of different archaeological artifacts such as papyrus, manuscripts, parchment, wood antiques and building materials.

Microbial swabs were taken from these infected artifacts and the isolated microorganisms were characterized. The following genera were identified: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Acremonium, Rhizopus, Cladosporium, Torula and Alternaria. The genus Aspergillus was the dominant genus having 49.6% of the total fungal isolates, followed by Penicillium and Acremonium.

Plant extracts were prepared from two aquatic plants, Polygonum senegalensis and Potamogeton crispus, and their antimicrobial activities against the isolated microorganisms were evaluated. Both plants showed potent antimicrobial activity.

GC-MS analysis of methanolic extracts was performed for both plants. In Polygonum senegalense, the main chemical constituent was 2-butenoic acid, 2-methyl-, dodecahydro-8- hydroxy-8a-methyl-3,5-bis(methylene)-2-oxonaphtho[2,3- b]furan-4-y (27.05%) followed by 2-cyclohexylpiperidine (10.70%), 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-1,3-disilaphenalane (10.10%), psi,psi-carotene, 1,1',2,2'-tetrahydro-1,1'-dimethoxy- (8.50%), linoleic acid ethyl ester (6.57%) and l-(+)-ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate (5.30%). The main chemical constituents of methanolic extract of Potamogeton crispus were 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-succinic acid, bis-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl ester (32.70%), 2-thiazolamine, 4-(3,4- dimethoxyphenyl)-5-methyl- (15.90%), cucurbitacin B, dihydro- (8.30%) and 3-dimethylamino-2-(4-chlorphenyl)- thioacrylic acid, thiomorpholide(7.29%).