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Extraction, Physicochemical, Phytosterols and Fatty Acid of Celosia spicata Leaves

Ogungbenle HN and Sanusi DS

Objective: This study assessed the minerals, phytosterols, fatty acid, physical and chemical characteristics of oil extracted from Celosia spicata leaves.

Methods: The Leaves of Celosia spicata were washed, dried and dry-milled into flour. Oil from the flour was extracted with petroleum ether using Soxhlet extractor. The extracted oil was evaluated for physicochemical properties and phytosterols using standard classical methods of analysis. The fatty acid methyl esters were determined using a chromatographic technique and the mineral elements were analyzed by dry-ashing the sample in a muffle furnace at 550°C and dissolving the ash with 3mL of 3M HCl in 100mL standard flask. Sodium and potassium were determined by flame photometer and other elements were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer.

Results: The results showed that potassium was the highest mineral with the value of 659±0.04mg/100g followed by magnesium (463±0.01mg/100g) while copper was the lowest with the value of 0.40±0.002mg/100g). The results of the physico chemical properties studied were: specific gravity (0.86), saponification value (191mgKOH/g), iodine value (112mgI2/g), acid value (3.90mgKOH/g), flash point (258°C) and fire point (274°C). The phytosterol analysis of Celosia spicata revealed the presence of sitosterol (102.76mg/100g). Palmitic acid (C16:0) (29.84%) and linoleic acid (C18:2) (23.29%) were the highest fatty acids while arachidic acid (C20:0) (0.505%) was the lowest.

Conclusions: It can be concluded that the oil contained high amount of unsaturated fatty acid and also exhibited good physical and chemical properties, which makes it edible and useful industrially. Therefore, its cultivation is encouraged.