Muhammad Wasif Saif, Konstantinos N Syrigos, Maria Serafeim Theochari
The aim of biomarkers is to identify patients most likely to benefit from a therapeutic strategy. Pancreatic neuroendocrinetumors are rare neoplasms that arise in the endocrine tissues of the pancreas. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors represent3% of primary pancreatic neoplasms and their incidence has risen. The SMAD4 gene is located on chromosome 18q andsomeday the SMAD4 gene status may be useful for prognostic stratification and therapeutic decision. The cells respond toenvironmental signals by modulating the expressions of genes contained within the nucleus, when genes are activated aretranscribed to generate messenger RNA (mRNA). The examination of multiple expressed genes and proteins provides moreuseful information for prognostication of individual tumors. Here we summarize and discuss findings presented at the 2014ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium. Anna Karpathakis et al. (Abstract #212) reported data about the role of DNAmethylation in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. Christina Lynn Roland et al. (Abstract #250) looked the impact OfSMAD4 on oncologic outcomes. Bong Kynn Kang et al. (Abstract #251) investigated prognostic biomarker using microRNAarray technology.