European Journal of Experimental Biology Open Access

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Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid on dyslipidemia in organs of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

Regina N. Ugbaja, Fisayo D. Owoeye, Oluwatosin A. DosumuA, Beno O. Onunkwor, Solomon O. Rotimi, Oladipo Ademuyiwa, Adesola E. Fayemi, Folashade F. Oginni and Deborah A. Ogundana

Diabetes Mellitus is one of the heterogeneous metabolic disorders associated with dyslipidemia, a major risk factor contributing to cardiovascular disease. This metabolic abnormality affects virtually all organs. Over the years, antidiabetic drugs which majorly aim at the hyperglycemic aspect of the disease have been used. Therefore, to address this dyslipidemia, omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) supplement was employed. Its effects on lipid metabolism in the organs (heart, liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen and brain) of alloxan-induced (150mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) diabetic male rats were investigated. O3FA (0.4g/kg b.wt/day) was administered as pre- and posttreatment for 2 weeks. The lipid levels were significantly increased (p<0.05) in diabetic rats. O3FA administration significantly reduced (p<0.05) the levels of cholesterol, phospholipids, triacylglycerol by varying extents, in the examined organs without affecting hyperglycemia in the diabetic rats. The ratio of HMG CoA/mevalonate decreased in the liver of the diabetic rats by 28% indicating increased activity of HMG-CoA reductase. This diabetes-induced dyslipidemia was accompanied by a 28% increase in the activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase. Administration of O3FA to the diabetic rats however resulted in 10% and 17% decrease in the activity of this enzyme in the pre- and post-treated groups respectively. Also, lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced (p<0.05) by O3FA suggesting that it has protective effect against oxidative damage. This study reveals that O3FAsupplement has beneficial effects in attenuating dyslipidemia observed in diabetes mellitus and could be beneficial as an adjunct in the management of diabetes mellitus.