Introduction: According to recent studies, ART regimens require 70-90% adherence in order to be effective. However, sustaining adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the long term requires accurate and consistent monitoring and this is a particular challenge. In Ethiopia different studies have done on adherence to ART in different region and reporting inconsistent findings across each region.
Methods: Cross sectional study design was used to assess the adherence and factors that affect adherence to ART in Dire Dawa. Simple random sampling technique was utilized to select the intended sample size and the sample size was calculated using single proportion formula considering the proportion of adherence p=0.74, which is taken from the study conducted in Yirgalem Hospital. Data was collected using structured questionnaire and interviewing the respondents included in the study after taking the unique ART number from the sampling frame. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS Version 16 for windows.
Results: The study revealed that ART adherence level was suboptimal (65%); whereas, the rest (35%) were non adherent (missed one or more dose) in the last seven days (non-adherent). Family support (p=0.001), having regular follow up (p=0.012) and trust each other with clinicians (p=0.01) were found to be associated with ART adherence positively.
Conclusion: The assessment of ART adherence was relatively poor when compared to others studies done. It was in disagreement with optimal adherence level. The adherence to ART was (65%); whereas, the rest (35%) missed doses (one and more) of their drugs in the last seven days (non-adherent). Among female respondent 59% adhered to ART while among the male respondents 41% adhered to their treatment indicating good adherence among female.